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The Art of Public Speaking 13th Edition PDF – eBook

Author: Stephen Lucas
SKU: 1259924602

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  • Authors: Stephen Lucas (Author)
  • File Size: 26 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 450  pages
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill; 13th edition (January 2, 2019)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1259924602
  • ISBN-13: 978-1259924606

Download The Art of Public Speaking 13th Edition PDF – eBook

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Description

  • Authors: Stephen Lucas (Author)
  • File Size: 26 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 450  pages
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill; 13th edition (January 2, 2019)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1259924602
  • ISBN-13: 978-1259924606

Download The Art of Public Speaking 13th Edition PDF – eBook

Contents
A Note from the Author xvi
Highlights of the Thirteenth Edition xvii
McGraw-Hill Connect and Instructor Resources xviii
Acknowledgments xxii
Reviewers, Contributors, and Symposia Participants xxiii
PART ONE SPEAKING AND LISTENING
Chapter 1 Speaking in Public 2
The Power of Public Speaking 4
The Tradition of Public Speaking 5
Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation 6
Differences Between Public Speaking and Conversation 8
Developing Confidence: Your Speech Class 8
Nervousness Is Normal 9
Dealing with Nervousness 10
Public Speaking and Critical Thinking 16
The Speech Communication Process 17
Speaker 17
Message 18
Channel 18
Listener 18
Feedback 19
Interference 20
Situation 20
The Speech Communication Process: Example with
Commentary 21
Public Speaking in a Multicultural World 21
Cultural Diversity in the Modern World 21
Cultural Diversity and Public Speaking 22
Avoiding Ethnocentrism 23
Contents
Chapter 2 Ethics and Public Speaking 26
The Importance of Ethics 28
Guidelines for Ethical Speaking 29
Make Sure Your Goals Are Ethically Sound 29
Be Fully Prepared for Each Speech 30
Be Honest in What You Say 31
Courtesy of Josh Shipp

vi Contents
Chapter 4 Giving Your First Speech 60
Preparing Your Speech 60
Developing the Speech 60
Organizing the Speech 63
Delivering Your Speech 65
Speaking Extemporaneously 66
Rehearsing the Speech 66
Presenting the Speech 67
Sample Speeches with Commentary 68
Chapter 3 Listening 44
Listening Is Important 46
Listening and Critical Thinking 47
Four Causes of Poor Listening 48
Not Concentrating 48
Listening Too Hard 48
Jumping to Conclusions 49
Focusing on Delivery and Personal Appearance 50
How to Become a Better Listener 51
Take Listening Seriously 51
Be an Active Listener 51
Resist Distractions 51
Don’t Be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery 53
Suspend Judgment 54
Focus Your Listening 54
Develop Note-Taking Skills 56
Avoid Name-Calling and Other Forms of Abusive Language 32
Put Ethical Principles into Practice 33
Plagiarism 34
Global Plagiarism 35
Patchwork Plagiarism 35
Incremental Plagiarism 36
Plagiarism and the Internet 38
Guidelines for Ethical Listening 39
Be Courteous and Attentive 39
Avoid Prejudging the Speaker 40
Maintain the Free and Open Expression of Ideas 40

Contents vii
Chapter 6 Analyzing the Audience 94
Audience-Centeredness 96
Your Classmates as an Audience 96
The Psychology of Audiences 97
Demographic Audience Analysis 98
Age 99
Religion 100
Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background 100
Gender and Sexual Orientation 101
Group Membership 102
Situational Audience Analysis 102
Size 103
Physical Setting 103
Disposition Toward the Topic 103
Disposition Toward the Speaker 105
Disposition Toward the Occasion 106
Getting Information About the Audience 107
Adapting to the Audience 109
Audience Adaptation Before the Speech 110
Audience Adaptation During the Speech 110
PART TWO SPEECH PREPARATION: GETTING STARTED
Chapter 5 Selecting a Topic and a Purpose 74
Choosing a Topic 76
Topics You Know a Lot About 76
Topics You Want to Know More About 77
Brainstorming for Topics 78
Determining the General Purpose 79
Determining the Specific Purpose 80
Tips for Formulating the Specific Purpose Statement 82
Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose 84
Phrasing the Central Idea 86
What Is the Central Idea? 86
Guidelines for the Central Idea 88

viii Contents
Chapter 8 Supporting Your Ideas 134
Examples 136
Brief Examples 137
Extended Examples 137
Hypothetical Examples 138
Tips for Using Examples 138
Statistics 141
Understanding Statistics 142
Tips for Using Statistics 145
Testimony 148
Expert Testimony 149
Peer Testimony 149
Quoting Versus Paraphrasing 150
Tips for Using Testimony 150
Citing Sources Orally 153
Chapter 7 Gathering Materials 114
Using Your Own Knowledge and Experience 114
Doing Library Research 116
Librarians 116
The Catalogue 117
Reference Works 117
Newspaper and Periodical Databases 118
Academic Databases 119
Searching the Internet 120
Search Engines 120
Specialized Research Resources 120
Evaluating Internet Documents 122
Interviewing 125
Before the Interview 125
During the Interview 126
After the Interview 128
Tips for Doing Research 128
Start Early 128
Make a Preliminary Bibliography 128
Take Notes Efficiently 129
Think About Your Materials as You Research 131

Contents ix
PART THREE SPEECH PREPARATION: ORGANIZING AND
OUTLINING
Chapter 9 Organizing the Body of the Speech 158
Organization Is Important 158
Main Points 160
Number of Main Points 162
Strategic Order of Main Points 162
Tips for Preparing Main Points 167
Supporting Materials 168
Connectives 170
Transitions 171
Internal Previews 171
Internal Summaries 172
Signposts 172
Chapter 11 Outlining the Speech 196
The Preparation Outline 196
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline 198
Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary 202
The Speaking Outline 205
Guidelines for the Speaking Outline 206
Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary 208
Chapter 10 Beginning and Ending the Speech 176
The Introduction 178
Get Attention and Interest 178
Reveal the Topic 183
Establish Credibility and Goodwill 184
Preview the Body of the Speech 185
Sample Introduction with Commentary 186
Tips for the Introduction 187
The Conclusion 188
Signal the End of the Speech 188
Reinforce the Central Idea 190
Sample Conclusion with Commentary 193
Tips for the Conclusion 193

Chapter 13 Delivery 230
What Is Good Delivery? 232
Methods of Delivery 232
Reading from a Manuscript 232
Reciting from Memory 233
Speaking Impromptu 233
Speaking Extemporaneously 234
The Speaker’s Voice 235
Volume 235
Pitch 236
Rate 236
Pauses 236
Vocal Variety 237
Pronunciation 237
Articulation 238
Dialect 239
The Speaker’s Body 239
Personal Appearance 240
Movement 240
Gestures 241
Eye Contact 242
Practicing Delivery 242
Answering Audience Questions 244
Preparing for the Question-and-Answer Session 244
Managing the Question-and-Answer Session 245
PART FOUR PRESENTING THE SPEECH
Chapter 12 Using Language 212
Meanings of Words 212
Using Language Accurately 214
Using Language Clearly 216
Use Familiar Words 216
Choose Concrete Words 217
Eliminate Clutter 218
Using Language Vividly 219
Imagery 219
Rhythm 222
Using Language Appropriately 224
Appropriateness to the Occasion 225
Appropriateness to the Audience 225
Appropriateness to the Topic 226
Appropriateness to the Speaker 226
A Note on Inclusive Language 226
x Contents

Chapter 14 Using Visual Aids 250
Kinds of Visual Aids 252
Objects and Models 252
Photographs and Drawings 252
Graphs 253
Charts 255
Video 255
The Speaker 256
Presentation Technology 256
Pluses and Minuses of Presentation Technology 257
Planning to Use Presentation Technology 258
Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids 259
Prepare Visual Aids Well in Advance 259
Keep Visual Aids Simple 259
Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough 259
Use a Limited Amount of Text 259
Use Fonts Effectively 260
Use Color Effectively 260
Use Images Strategically 261
Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids 262
Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them 262
Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience 262
Display Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them 263
Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely 263
Talk to Your Audience, Not to Your Visual Aid 264
Practice with Your Visual Aids 264
Check the Room and Equipment 265
PART FIVE VARIETIES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
Chapter 15 Speaking to Inform 268
Types of Informative Speeches: Analysis and Organization 270
Speeches About Objects 270
Speeches About Processes 272
Speeches About Events 274
Speeches About Concepts 275
Guidelines for Informative Speaking 277
Don’t Overestimate What the Audience Knows 277
Relate the Subject Directly to the Audience 278
Don’t Be Too Technical 280
Avoid Abstractions 281
Personalize Your Ideas 283
Be Creative 284
Sample Speech with Commentary 285
Contents xi

xii Contents
Chapter 16 Speaking to Persuade 290
The Importance of Persuasion 292
Ethics and Persuasion 292
The Psychology of Persuasion 293
The Challenge of Persuasive Speaking 293
How Listeners Process Persuasive Messages 294
The Target Audience 295
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Fact 296
What Are Questions of Fact? 296
Analyzing Questions of Fact 297
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Fact 298
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Value 298
What Are Questions of Value? 298
Analyzing Questions of Value 299
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Value 299
Persuasive Speeches on Questions of Policy 300
What Are Questions of Policy? 300
Types of Speeches on Questions of Policy 301
Analyzing Questions of Policy 302
Organizing Speeches on Questions of Policy 304
Sample Speech with Commentary 310
Chapter 17 Methods of Persuasion 316
Building Credibility 318
Factors of Credibility 318
Types of Credibility 319
Enhancing Your Credibility 320
Using Evidence 322
How Evidence Works: A Case Study 322
Tips for Using Evidence 324
Reasoning 325
Reasoning from Specific Instances 327
Reasoning from Principle 328
Causal Reasoning 328
Analogical Reasoning 329
Fallacies 330
Appealing to Emotions 334
What Are Emotional Appeals? 334
Generating Emotional Appeal 335
Ethics and Emotional Appeal 337
Sample Speech with Commentary 338

Contents xiii
Chapter 18 Speaking on Special Occasions 344
Speeches of Introduction 344
Speeches of Presentation 348
Speeches of Acceptance 349
Commemorative Speeches 350
Chapter 19 Presenting Your Speech
Online 356
The Special Nature of the Online Environment 358
Kinds of Online Speeches 358
Guidelines for Online Speaking 359
Control the Visual Environment 359
Adapt Your Nonverbal Communication 362
Adjust Your Pacing 362
Don’t Forget Your Audience 363
Practice, Practice, Practice 363
The Technology of Real-Time Online Speeches 366
Choosing the Software 366
Learning the Software 366
Have a Backup Plan 366
Sample Speech with Commentary 367
Chapter 20 Speaking in Small Groups 372
What Is a Small Group? 374
Leadership in Small Groups 374
Kinds of Leadership 374
Functions of Leadership 376
Responsibilities in a Small Group 377
Commit Yourself to the Goals of Your Group 377
Fulfill Individual Assignments 378
Avoid Interpersonal Conflicts 378
Encourage Full Participation 379
Keep the Discussion on Track 380
The Reflective-Thinking Method 380
Define the Problem 380
Analyze the Problem 382
Establish Criteria for Solutions 383
Generate Potential Solutions 384
Select the Best Solution 384
Presenting the Recommendations of the Group 386
Oral Report 386
Symposium 387
Panel Discussion 387

xiv Contents
Appendix Speeches for Analysis and Discussion A-1
Lady Liberty A-2
Using a Tourniquet to Save a Life A-3
The Living-Wage Solution A-5
Phony Pharmaceuticals A-7
Make a Wish A-9
Elie Wiesel A-10
Notes N1
Index I1

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