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Structures 7th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: by Daniel Schodek, Martin Bechthold (Author)
  • File Size: 49 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 564 pages
  • Publisher: ‎Pearson; 7th edition (July 25, 2013)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0132559137
  • ISBN-13: 978-0132559133

Download Structures 7th Edition  PDF – eBook

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Description

  • Authors: by Daniel Schodek, Martin Bechthold (Author)
  • File Size: 49 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 564 pages
  • Publisher: ‎Pearson; 7th edition (July 25, 2013)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0132559137
  • ISBN-13: 978-0132559133

Download Structures 7th Edition  PDF – eBook

Contents

Part I Introductory Concepts 1
1 Structures: An Overview 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 General Types of Structures 4
1.2.1 Primary Classifications 4
1.2.2 Primary Structural Elements 8
1.2.3 Primary Structural Units and Aggregations 11
1.3 Analysis and Design of Structures: Basic Issues 13
1.3.1 Fundamental Structural Phenomena 13
1.3.2 Structural Stability 14
1.3.3 Forces, Moments, and Stresses in Members 15
1.3.4 Basic Structural Analysis and Design Process 19
1.4 Funicular Structures 21
1.4.1 Basic Characteristics 21
1.4.2 Structural Behavior 23
1.5 Other Classifications 26
Questions 27
2 Principles of Mechanics 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Forces and Moments 30
2.2.1 Analysis Objectives and Processes 30
2.2.2 Forces 31
2.2.3 Scalar and Vector Quantities 31
2.2.4 Parallelogram of Forces 32
2.2.5 Resolution and Composition of Forces 32
2.2.6 Statically Equivalent Systems 34
2.2.7 Moments 35
2.3 Equilibrium 37
2.3.1 Equilibrium of a Particle 37
2.3.2 Equilibrium of a Rigid Member 37
2.3.3 Applied and Reactive Forces 39
2.3.4 Complete Static Analyses 52
viii Contents
2.4 Internal Forces and Moments 54
2.4.1 Axial Forces (Tension and Compression) 54
2.4.2 Shear and Moment 55
2.4.3 Distribution of Shears and Moments 56
2.4.4 Relations among Load, Shear, and Moment in Structures 71
2.5 Introduction To Stresses 71
2.6 Mechanical Properties of Materials 76
2.6.1 Introduction 76
2.6.2 General Load-Deformation Properties of Materials 77
2.6.3 Elasticity 77
2.6.4 Strength 79
2.6.5 Other Material Properties 79
2.7 Deformations in Tension and Compression Members 82
Questions 84
3 Introduction to Structural Analysis and Design 87
3.1 Analysis and Design Criteria 87
3.2 Analysis and Design Process 88
3.3 Loads on Structures 91
3.3.1 Introduction 91
3.3.2 Static Forces 92
3.3.3 Wind Loads 94
3.3.4 Earthquake Forces 98
3.3.5 Blast Loads 102
3.3.6 Load Combinations and Load Factors 102
3.4 Modeling the Structure 103
3.5 Load Modeling and Reactions 106
Questions 120
Part II Analysis and Design of Structural Elements 121
4 Trusses 123
4.1 Introduction 123
4.2 General Principles 124
4.2.1 Triangulation 124
4.2.2 Member Forces: Qualitative Analyses 125
4.3 Analysis of Trusses 128
4.3.1 Stability 128
4.3.2 Member Forces: General 130
4.3.3 Equilibrium of Joints 130
4.3.4 Equilibrium of Sections 138
4.3.5 Shears and Moments in Trusses 143
4.3.6 Statically Indeterminate Trusses 145
4.3.7 Use of Special Tensile Members: Cables 146
4.3.8 Space Trusses 146
4.3.9 Joint Rigidity 148
4.3.10 Computer-Aided Methods of Analysis 149
4.4 Design of Trusses 150
4.4.1 Objectives 150
4.4.2 Configurations 151
Contents ix
4.4.3 Depths of Trusses 160
4.4.4 Member Design Issues 160
4.4.5 Planar Versus Three-Dimensional Trusses 165
Questions 167
5 Funicular Structures: Cables and Arches 171
5.1 Introduction to Funicular Structures 171
5.2 General Principles of Funicular Shapes 171
5.3 Analysis and Design of Cable Structures 173
5.3.1 Introduction 173
5.3.2 Suspended Cable Structures: Concentrated Loads 175
5.3.3 Suspended Cables: Uniformly Distributed Loads 179
5.3.4 Cables with Varying Support Levels 182
5.3.5 Cable Lengths 183
5.3.6 Wind Effects 183
5.4 Design of Cable Structures 184
5.4.1 Simple Suspension Cables 185
5.4.2 Double-Cable Systems 188
5.4.3 Cable-Stayed Structures 189
5.5 Analysis and Design of Arches 190
5.5.1 Masonry Arches 190
5.5.2 Parabolic Rigid Arches: Uniformly Distributed Loadings 192
5.5.3 Funicular Arches: Point Loadings 194
5.5.4 Design of Arch Structures 196
Designing for Load Variations 197
5.5.5 Three-Hinged Arches 197
5.5.6 Comparisons Between Fixed Two-Hinged and Three-Hinged
Arches 206
Questions 208
6 Beams 211
6.1 Introduction 211
6.2 General Principles 212
6.2.1 Beams in Buildings 212
6.2.2 Basic Stress Distributions 215
6.3 Analysis of Beams 218
6.3.1 Bending Stresses 218
6.3.2 Lateral Buckling of Beams 231
6.3.3 Shear Stresses 233
6.3.4 Bearing Stresses 238
6.3.5 Torsion 239
6.3.6 Shear Center 240
6.3.7 Deflections 241
6.3.8 Principal Stresses 243
6.3.9 Finite-Element Analyses 245
6.4 Design of Beams 246
6.4.1 General Design Principles 246
6.4.2 Design of Timber Beams 252
6.4.3 Steel Beams 257
6.4.4 Reinforced-Concrete Beams: General Principles 263
6.4.5 Reinforced-Concrete Beams: Design and Analysis Principles 264
x Contents
6.4.6 Reinforced-Concrete Beams: General Design Procedures 266
6.4.7 Prestressing and Posttensioning 269
Questions 272
7 Members in Compression: Columns 275
7.1 Introduction 275
7.2 General Principles 276
7.3 Analysis of Compression Members 278
7.3.1 Short Columns 278
7.3.2 Long Columns 279
7.4 Design of Compression Members 288
7.4.1 General Design Principles 288
7.4.2 Column Sizes 293
7.4.3 Timber Columns 293
7.4.4 Steel Columns 295
7.4.5 Reinforced-Concrete Columns 296
Questions 298
8 Continuous Structures: Beams 299
8.1 Introduction 299
8.2 General Principles 299
8.2.1 Rigidity 300
8.2.2 Force Distributions 302
8.3 Analysis of Indeterminate Beams 302
8.3.1 Approximate Versus Exact Methods
of Analysis 302
8.3.2 Approximate Methods of Analysis 303
8.3.3 Computer-Based Methods of Analysis 305
8.3.4 Effects of Variations in Member Stiffness 306
8.3.5 Effects of Support Settlements 308
8.3.6 Cable-Supported Beams 310
8.3.7 Effects of Partial-Loading Conditions 310
8.4 Design of Indeterminate Beams 313
8.4.1 Introduction 313
8.4.2 Design Moments 314
8.4.3 Shaping Continuous Beams 315
8.4.4 Use of Pinned Joints: Gerber Beams 316
8.4.5 Controlling Moment Distributions 318
8.4.6 Continuous Beams Made of Reinforced Concrete 319
Questions 321
9 Continuous Structures: Rigid Frames 323
9.1 Introduction 323
9.2 General Principles 323
9.3 Analysis Of Rigid Frames 326
9.3.1 Methods of Analysis 326
9.3.2 Importance of Relative Beam and Column Stiffnesses 332
9.3.3 Sidesway 334
9.3.4 Support Settlements 336
9.3.5 Effects of Partial-Loading Conditions 337
Contents xi
9.3.6 Multistory Frames 337
9.3.7 Vierendeel Frames 338
9.4 Design of Rigid Frames 340
9.4.1 Introduction 340
9.4.2 Selection of Frame Type 340
9.4.3 Design Moments 343
9.4.4 Shaping of Frames 344
9.4.5 Member and Connection Design 346
9.4.6 General Considerations 346
Questions 349
10 Plate and Grid Structures 351
10.1 Introduction 351
10.2 Grid Structures 351
10.3 Plate Structures 355
10.3.1 One-Way Plate Structures 355
10.3.2 Two-Way Plate Structures 356
10.4 Design of Two-way Systems: General Objectives for Plate, Grid,
and Space-Frame Structures 364
10.5 Design of Reinforced-Concrete Two-Way Systems 366
10.6 Space-Frame Structures 373
10.7 Folded-Plate Structures 378
Questions 381
11 Membrane and Net Structures 383
11.1 Introduction 383
11.2 Pneumatic Structures 385
11.2.1 Background 385
11.2.2 Air-Supported Structures 387
11.2.3 Air-Inflated Structures 390
11.2.4 Other Considerations 392
11.3 Analysis and Design of Net and Tent Structures 392
11.3.1 Curvatures 393
11.3.2 Support Conditions 394
11.3.3 Form Finding 395
11.3.4 Materials 397
Questions 398
12 Shell Structures 399
12.1 Introduction 399
12.2 Spherical Shell Structures 402
12.2.1 Introduction 402
12.2.2 Membrane Action in Shell Surfaces 404
12.2.3 Types of Forces in Spherical Shells 404
12.2.4 Meridional Forces in Spherical Shells 406
12.2.5 Hoop Forces in Spherical Shells 407
12.2.6 Distribution of Forces 408
12.2.7 Concentrated Forces 408
12.2.8 Support Conditions: Tension and Compression Rings 408
12.2.9 Other Considerations 412
xii Contents
12.3 Cylindrical Shells 412
12.4 Hyperbolic Paraboloid Shells 413
12.5 Free-Form Surfaces 415
12.6 Grid Shells 417
Questions 418
Part III Principles of Structural Design 419
13 Structural Elements and Grids: General Design Strategies 423
13.1 Introduction 423
13.2 Structural Element Selection and System Organization 425
13.2.1 Horizontal Spans 425
13.2.2 Basic Strategies 428
13.2.3 One-Way Systems 430
13.2.4 Two-Way Systems 432
13.3 Typical Horizontal Grids 435
13.3.1 Orthogonal Systems 435
13.3.2 Triangulated Systems 437
13.3.3 Radial and Circular Systems 438
13.4 Multistory Grids 439
13.5 Irregular and Disrupted Grids 441
13.5.1 Nonstandard Structural Patterns 441
13.5.2 Grid Transitions 441
13.5.3 Accommodating Large Spaces 446
13.6 Programmatic and Spatial Issues 448
13.6.1 Relation to Program and Functional Zones 448
13.6.2 Spatial Characteristic of Structural Systems 451
14 Structural Systems: Design for Lateral Loadings 457
14.1 Lateral Forces: Effects on the Design of Structures 457
14.1.1 Basic Design Issues 457
14.1.2 Low- and Medium-Rise Buildings 463
14.1.3 Multistory Construction 470
14.2 Earthquake Design Considerations 475
14.2.1 General Principles 475
14.2.2 General Design and Planning Considerations 477
14.2.3 General Characteristics of Earthquake-Resistant Structures 479
14.2.4 Materials 480
14.2.5 Stiffness Issues 481
14.2.6 Nonstructural Elements 483
14.2.7 Base Isolation Systems and Other Techniques 483
Questions 484
15 Structural Systems: Constructional Approaches 485
15.1 Introduction 485
15.2 Wood Construction 485
15.3 Reinforced-Concrete Construction 489
15.4 Steel Construction 494
Contents xiii
15.5 System Integration 499
15.6 Life Safety 502
15.7 Foundations and Retaining Walls 503
Questions 505
16 Structural Connections 507
16.1 Introduction 507
16.2 Basic Joint Geometries 507
16.3 Basic Types of Connectors 509
16.3.1 Bolts and Rivets 511
16.3.2 Welded Joints 513
Questions 514
Appendices 515
1 Conversions 515
2 Nonconcurrent Force Systems 515
3 Moments of Distributed Loads 515
4 Centroids 516
5 Moments of Inertia 518
6 Bending Stresses in Beams 521
7 Shearing Stresses in Beams 522
8 Moment–Curvature Relations 523
9 Deflections 524
10 Moment–Area Theorems: Slopes and Deflections 526
11 Other Methods of Analyzing Indeterminate Structures 526
12 Reinforced-Concrete Beams: Detailed U.S. Design Procedures 528
13 Critical Buckling Loads for Compression Members 531
14 Code-Based Design of Timber Columns 532
15 Computer-Based Methods of Analysis: Force and Matrix-Displacement
Techniques 533
16 Computer-Based Methods of Analysis: Finite-Element Techniques 539
17 Typical U.S. Steel Shapes: Properties 541
18 Typical Material Properties 541

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