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Download Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care 8th Edition PDF – eBook

Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care EIGHTH EDITION

Diana J. Mason, PhD, RN, FAAN
Consultant and Journalist, Senior Policy Service Professor, Center for Health Policy and Media
Engagement, School of Nursing, George Washington University, Washington, DC
Professor Emerita, Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, City University of New York, New York,
New York
Elizabeth Dickson, PhD, RN
Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, Center for Participatory Research, University of New
Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Monica R. McLemore, PhD, RN, MPH, FAAN
Associate Professor, Family Health Care Nursing, Clinician-Scientist, Advancing New Standards in
Reproductive Health (ANSIRH), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California
G. Adriana Perez, PhD, RN, CRNP, ANP-BC,
FAAN, FGSA
Assistant Professor of Nursing, Family and Community Health, School of Nursing, Senior Fellow,
Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania

Table of Contents

Cover image
Title page
About the editors

Contributors

Reviewers

Contents

Forewords

Preface

Acknowledgments
UNIT 1. Introduction to Policy and Politics in Nursing and Health
Care

1. Frameworks for action in policy and politics
Focus on policy: What policy?
The affordable care act
Upstream factors: Social determinants of health
Nursing and health and social policy
Policy and the policy process
Forces that shape health and social policy
The framework for action
Policy and political competence
Nursing essentials
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
2. Historical perspective on policy, politics, and nursing
“Not enough to be a messenger”
Bringing together the past for the present: What we learned from history
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
3. Advocacy in nursing and healthcare
Evolution of nursing’s advocacy role
Models of nursing advocacy
Preparing nurses for their role as advocates
Overcoming barriers to advocacy
Lived experience of advocacy
Discussion questions
References
4. Learning the ropes of policy and politics

5 Political consciousness-raising: The “aha” moment
Getting started
Mentor advantage
Educational opportunities
Fellowship experience
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
5. TAKING ACTION: Just say yes: Learning to move beyond the fear
Mentors, passion, and curiosity
Running for office
References
6. A primer on political philosophy
Political philosophy
The state
Gender and race in political philosophy
The welfare state
Political philosophy and implications for nurses
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
7. The policy process
Health policy and politics
Unique aspects of U.S. policymaking

The conceptual basis for policymaking
Nurses’ competence in the policymaking process
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

8. Political analysis and strategies
What is political analysis?
Political strategies
References
Online resources
9. Communication and conflict management in health policy
Understanding Conflict
A strategic communication framework
The strategy for effective communication
General rules for successful personal interactions
Challenges
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
10. Research as a political and policy tool
So what is the policy?
What is research when it comes to policy?
The chemistry between research and policymaking

Using research to create, inform, and shape policy
Research and political will
Research: Not just for journals
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
11. Using research to advance health and social policies for children
Children’s rights in the United States
Childhood as a developmental stage
Child well-being in the United States
Poverty and toxic stress
Current child health policy
Opportunities for improvement in child health policy
Implications for advocacy, policy, and research
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
12. Using the power of the media to influence health policy and politics
Media landscape
What is the media?
How does media matter?
Who controls the media?
Media to promote health
Effective use of media
Analyzing media

Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
13. TAKING ACTION: Billboards and a social media campaign
References
14. Health policy, politics, and professional ethics
The ethics of influencing policy
Professional ethics and moral agency
U.S. healthcare reform
Allocating scarce resources
Health care disparities
Ethics and work environment policies
Conclusion
References
UNIT 2. Health Care Delivery and Financing
15. The changing united states healthcare system
Overview of the U.S. health care system
Transforming health care through technology
Health status and trends
Opportunities and challenges for nursing in the U.S. health care system
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
16. A primer on the health economics of nursing and health policy

Economics as a discipline
A fundamental economic tool
Cost-effectiveness of nursing services
Impact of health reform on nursing economics
Discussion questions
References
17. Financing health care in the united states
Historical perspectives on health care financing
Government programs
The private (commercial) health insurance
The problem of continually rising healthcare costs
Reimbursement mechanisms and payment reform
What is next?
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
18. The affordable care act: An uncertain future
Affordable care act design elements
Affordable care act implementation and management
Impact of the affordable care act
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

19. The national association of Hispanic nurses educating multicultural communities on the
patient protection and affordable care act
Latinos and access to health insurance coverage
A call to action for the national association of Hispanic nurses
Partnerships to increase coverage in communities initiative
Action that is results-oriented
Lessons learned and recommendations for future efforts
References

20. Patient engagement and public policy: Emerging new paradigms and roles
Innovative exemplars of patient engagement
Patient engagement and federal initiatives
The role of nursing in advancing patient engagement
From patient engagement to citizen health
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
21. The marinated mind: Why overuse is an epidemic and how to reduce it
Commonly overused interventions
Reasons for overuse
Physician and nurse acknowledge of overuse
Public reporting to reduce overuse
Journalists advocate for more transparency about the overuse
Increase in the peer-reviewed literature on overuse
Discussion questions

References
Online resources
22. Policy approaches to address health disparities
Origins of health equity policies
Health disparities and social determinants of health
From the heckler report to the affordable care act: Ongoing changes
ACA and disparities in Medicaid coverage
Health disparities remain after ACA
Disparities in healthcare access and the need for nurses
Summary
References
23. TAKING ACTION: Policy advocacy for American Indian/Alaska Native children:
School nutrition and indigenous food sovereignty
American Indian/Alaska Native health challenges
Historical influences on childhood obesity
A shift in nutritional health
Role of schools in the nutritional health of AI/AN children
My role in advocacy for school nutrition
Opportunities for advocacy and policy engagement
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
24. TAKING ACTION: Addressing the health needs of immigrant/migrant farmworkers
The historical context of migration: Farmworkers
The bracero program (1942–1964)

The rise of the united farmworkers union
Migrant farmworkers: Demographic profile
Migrant farmworkers: Occupational health
Epidemiological studies: Update
A call for social justice and social determinants of health approach
TAKING ACTION: Health care in the fields
Discussion questions
References
25. The unfulfilled promise of mental health and addiction parity
Federal legislative milestones toward achieving behavioral health parity
Gaps, challenges, and threats to the parity law
State-level implementation
Implications for mental health nurses: Issues and strategies
Discussion questions
References
Online resources: Federal enforcement agencies
Advocacy resources
26. Improving LGBTQ+ health: Nursing policy can make a difference
Recognizing and addressing LGBTQ+ issues
Importance of sexual orientation and gender identity data collection
LGBTQ+ across the lifespan
Recent policy issues
Nursing education policy
Healthcare organizations and policy
Recommendations

Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
27. Reproductive health policy
Historical perspectives on women’s health and U.S. policy
When women’s reproductive health needs are not met
What is equitable reproductive health policy?
Abortion policy and contraception
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
28. Public and population health: Promoting the health of the public
Public health, policy, and nursing
The state of public health and the public’s health
The public health system
Public health core functions
Future directions
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
29. TAKING ACTION: Influencing public health in a politically charged environment
Not a politician
A tale of two cities in West New York

Safe kids day
Flu fighters
Influencing policy and revising ordinances
Advocating for social justice
References
30. Disaster response and public health emergency preparedness
Purpose statement
Background and significance
Presidential declarations of disaster and the Stafford act
Post-Katrina emergency management reform act (2006)
September 11, 2001: A sentinel event
The politics underlying disaster and public health emergency policy
Project BioShield (2004)
Public readiness and emergency preparedness act 2005
National commission on children and disasters 2009, 2013
National terrorism advisory system (2011)
National health security strategy and implementation plan (2015–18)
Pandemic and all-hazards preparedness reauthorization act (2013)
Office of the assistant secretary for preparedness and response (2018)
Public health emergency preparedness act (2018)
Strategic national stockpile
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

31. Advancing new models of primary care
Primary care and social determinants of health
Access and the ACA
Team-based care
The virtualization of primary care
Primary care settings
Transitioning from fee-for-service to value-based payments
Looking to the future: Where will science take the US?
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
32. Family caregiving and social policy
Who are the family caregivers?
What do caregivers do?
Unpaid value of family caregiving
Personal costs of caregiving
Supporting family caregivers
Family caregiving policy
The future
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
33. Dual eligibles: Challenges and innovations in care
Who are the duals?

What are the challenges?
Healthcare delivery reforms that hold promise
Implication for nurses
Policy implications
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
34. Home care, hospice, and community-based care: Evolving policy
Fundamental underpinnings
Innovative models in the home and in the community
From grassroots to national policy
Community-based palliative care
Medicare advantage expansion of supplemental benefits
Accountable health communities
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

35. Long-term services and supports policy issues
Poor quality of care
Weak enforcement
Inadequate nursing staffing levels
Corporate ownership
Financial accountability
Other issues

Home and community-based services
Public financing
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
36. The united states military and veterans administration health systems: Contemporary
overview and policy challenges
Structure of military and veterans health care
Unique care topics across the continuum
Policy challenges
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
UNIT 3. Policy and Politics in the Government
37. Contemporary issues in government
Six key health issues challenging policymakers
Political and sociological barriers to addressing key issues
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
38. How government works: What you need to know to influence the process
Government oversight of health policy and healthcare
Federalist system: Three levels of government

Influence and how it works
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
39. An overview of legislative and regulatory processes
The power structure
How a bill becomes a law
The regulatory process
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

40. Lobbying policymakers: Individual and collective strategies
Nurses: Advocates or lobbyists?
Is it lobbying, advocacy, or both?
Public sentiment of lobbyists
Professional standards and regulations for lobbying
Nursing and campaign contributions
Advocacy and you: Connecting with your legislators
Meeting in person
Written communications
Wrap-up
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

41. Political activity: Different rules for government employees
History of efforts to restrict political activities of government employees
The Hatch Act: What is it?
Amendments to the Hatch Act
What political activities are permitted and prohibited by the Hatch Act?
U.S. Department of defense regulations on political activity
New challenges to the Hatch Act—social media and telework
Enforcement of the Hatch Act
Recent violations of the Hatch Act
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
42. TAKING ACTION: Reflective musings from a nurse politician
Engage! mountains can be moved with three votes
The gender factor
Health in all policies!
Example #1: Creating a health and wellness campus
Example #2: Building a therapeutic justice system
Personal reflections
References
43. TAKING ACTION: Running against the odds: There’s a nurse in the assembly
44. Political appointments
Considering political appointment?
Identifying political appointments

Support for appointment
Networking: Power of connections
Political party affiliation
Preparing for appointment
Holding an appointed position
Conclusion: Influencing public policy
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
45. Nursing and the courts
The judicial system
The role of precedent
The constitution and branches of government
Judicial review
Impact litigation
Enforcing legal and regulatory requirements
Roe v. Wade and access to abortion
Criminal courts
Influencing and responding to court decisions
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

46. Nursing licensure and regulation
The purpose of professional regulation

Sources of regulation
Licensure board authority and responsibilities
Licensure requirements
Disciplinary offenses
Regulation’s shortcomings
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
47. TAKING ACTION: Nurse, educator, and legislator: My journey to the Delaware general
assembly and as lieutenant governor
My political roots
Volunteering and campaigning
There’s a reason it is called “running” for office
A day in the life of a nurse-legislator and Lt. Governor
What I’ve been able to accomplish as a nurse legislator and Lt. Governor
Tips for influencing elected officials’ health policy decisions
Is it worth it?
References
UNIT 4. Policy and Politics in the Workplace and Workforce
48. Policy and politics in healthcare organizations
Follow the money
Health and social determinants
Population health
Disruption to the industry

Opportunities for nursing
Mergers and acquisition
Key merger and acquisition activities
Post-merger considerations
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
49. Taking your place at the table: Board appointments and service
Why nurses?
Competencies required of board members
Process for identifying readiness for board service
Which boards are the right fit?
Resources available through nurses on boards coalition
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
50. TAKING ACTION: Nurse leaders in the boardroom
Getting started
Alicia’s journey
Linda’s journey
References
51. Quality and safety in health care: Policy issues
Performance measures and public reporting

Value-based quality outcomes of care
Regulation
Unintended consequences of policies intended to improve care
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References

52. Politics and evidence-based practice and policy
The players and their stakes
The role of politics in generating evidence
The politics of research application in clinical practice
The politics of applying research in policy formulation
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
53. The nursing workforce
Characteristics of the workforce
Expanding the workforce
Increasing diversity
Retaining workers
Addressing the nursing workforce issues
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

54. Rural health care: Workforce challenges and opportunities
Defining rural
What makes health and health care different for rural populations?
Health disparities of rural Americans
Rural health care
Rural policy, rural politics
The opportunities and challenges of rural health
Actions through policy and politics
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

55. TAKING ACTION: Increasing specialty medical care access in rural communities
New Mexico at a glance
Access telemedicine: “Access to critical cerebral emergency support services”
Access project origins
Access nursing roles and responsibilities
Building brick by brick
Lessons learned: It’s all about relationships
Discussion questions
References
56. Nurse staffing ratios: Policy options
The establishment of California’s regulations
What has happened as a result of California’s minimum nurse staffing ratios?
Are hospitals meeting the minimum nurse staffing ratios?
Has the mix of staff changed?

Did wages for nurses increase?
Have hospitals reduced services and uncompensated care?
Have hospitals suffered financial losses?
Are nurses more satisfied?
Did the minimum nurse staffing ratios improve the quality of care?
What’s next?
Financial incentives for nurse staffing improvement
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
57. The contemporary work environment of nursing
Definitions
Introduction
Demographics of the new workforce
Hidden curriculum
Case scenario
Process for organizational policy development for a case scenario
Harassment
Bullying and microaggressions
Curriculum on diversity
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
58. TAKING ACTION: Racism in the workplace
Racism

Policies to eradicate racism
Racism in the workplace
Actionable steps to eradicate structural racism
Summary
References
59. Collective strategies for transformation in the workplace
Transformation
Creating a culture of excellence
Assessment of setting and structure
Formula for success
Implementing transformational change
Lessons learned
Examples of change decisions
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

60. Political context of advanced practice nursing
Advanced practice registered nurse practice, federal and state laws
Assessing progress on the institute of medicine report recommendation
Persistent federal barriers
Federal trade commission
State progress in increasing access to APRN care
Insurance company credentialing
Hospital privileges

Physician opposition
Media and messaging
Political strategy and tactics
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
61. TAKING ACTION: Never underestimate the power of a personal story
The problem
Background
Commitment to change
Why hasn’t this policy been changed?
What is needed for change?
Welcome to policy
Relationship building
Joining forces
The meeting
Decision agenda
Concessions
Three key factors
Call to action
References
62. TAKING ACTION: Removing APRN regulatory barriers in West Virginia
History of advanced practice registered nurse regulation in West Virginia
The historic shift of power provides new opportunities
Coalition building

Strategic efforts
The trajectory of the bill
Lessons learned
References
63. TAKING ACTION: Full practice authority: A tale of two states
A moment in time: Nurse practitioner past portends its future
A new day: The nurse practitioner movement matures
Lessons learned: Finding and using your voice
Moving forward: It takes a village to build a bench
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References

64. Policy and politics in nursing academia
Academic freedom as central to nursing education
Internal politics and policies
External politics and policies
Summary: Influence of politics and policies on academic nursing
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
65. The intersection of technology and health care: Policy and practice implications
Public policy support for HIT
Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record Incentive Programs and HIT
Political and clinical implications of HIT policy for nursing

Safety and HIT
Unintended consequences of HIT
Future direction for national HIT policy
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
UNIT 5. Policy and Politics in Associations and Interest Groups
66. Interest groups in health care policy and politics
Development of interest groups
Functions and methods of influence
The landscape of contemporary healthcare interest groups
Assessing value and considering involvement
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

67. Policy issues in nursing associations
What is an association?
Developmental phases
Development of American nursing organizations
Alliances
Credentialing organizations
The work of nursing associations
Policy issues affecting nursing associations

Challenges when addressing policy issues
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
68. TAKING ACTION: School nursing at the intersection of health and education
Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model
Framework for 21st-Century School Nursing Practice
Opportunities and challenges with education policy
Healthy and safe schools
Opportunities and challenges with health policy
Key takeaways
Discussion questions
References
69. TAKING ACTION: The alliance of nurses for healthy environments promoting
environmental health
Environmental health nursing in the context
References
Online resources
70. Coalitions: A powerful political strategy
Birth and life cycle of coalitions
Building and maintaining a coalition: The primer
Pitfalls and challenges
Political work of coalitions
Evaluating coalition effectiveness

Discussion questions
References
Online resources
71. TAKING ACTION: Campaign for Action
The future of nursing report
Implementing the future of nursing report
Strengthening nursing education
Conclusion
References
Online resources
72. TAKING ACTION: Why not Minot? The battle over North Dakota’s first smoke-free
ordinance
Minot’s story
Laying the groundwork
A legislative champion
Legislative process
The referendum process
“Public health improved”
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
UNIT 6. Policy and Politics in the Community
73. Where policy hits the pavement: Contemporary issues in communities
Community Defined
Community engagement

Contemporary policy issues affecting communities
Nurses engaging contemporary policy in the community
Using health equity and SDOH framework for every population
Discussion questions
References
Online resources

74. An introduction to community activism
Key concepts
Taking action to effect change: Characteristics of community activists and activism
Challenges and opportunities in community activism
Nurses as community activists
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
75. TAKING ACTION: From sewage problems to the statehouse: Serving communities
Sewage changed my life
Seeing is believing
My campaigns
The value of political activity in your community
An opportunity to learn the ropes
Networking
Leadership in the International community
Mentoring other nurses for political advocacy
Recommendations for becoming involved in politics

76. TAKING ACTION: Contaminated water and elevated blood lead levels in flint
Nurses’ call to action in lead case management
Flint’s riches to rags story
State and city fiscal challenges
Drinking from the lakes and the rivers that you are used to
Public health and clinical care linkage
A pediatrician’s observation forces the return to Detroit water
Communicating leads health protective behaviors in a community when trust is eroded
Flint forward
Calling all nurses: Power of the practitioner
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
77. Creating a culture of health and working with communities
Health care in the United States
Integrated care
Culture of health
Role of nurses in the culture of health
Working with communities to transform healthcare
Hospital partnerships and transitions of care
Determinants of community health assessment tools and resources
Building a sense of community and civic engagement to address population health in
transforming health care
Advocacy and policy development to strengthen the culture of health
Conclusion
Discussion questions

References

78. TAKING ACTION: Activism: A community rises
From advocacy to service
Conclusion
References
79. Family and sexual violence, nursing, and U.S. policy
Intimate partner and sexual violence against women
State laws regarding intimate partner and sexual violence
Federal laws related to intimate partner and sexual violence
Health policies related to intimate partner and sexual violence
Child maltreatment
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
80. Human trafficking: The need for nursing advocacy
What is human trafficking?
The global scope of human trafficking: Overview of universal issues and impact
U.S. responses to combating human trafficking: Policies, laws, and consequences
Nursing advocacy, policy, and practice
Nursing organizations
Education
The Workplace
Conclusion
Discussion questions

References
Online resources
81. TAKING ACTION: Policy, politics, and advocating for medicinal cannabis use
History of prohibition of cannabis
Global issues
Environmental impact
Social justice and human issues
My journey
Educating nurses
Public health-related issues
References
82. Think globally, act locally: Nursing and global health
What is “global health”?
The wealth of a nation is its people
Ideals to goals to actions
Global nursing organizations
Global politics and policy
Understanding policymaking
A new story of a nursing
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
83. Infectious disease in a highly connected world: Nurses’ role to prevent, detect, respond
Context

Global concern, global action
Role of nurses to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats
Case study: Ebola virus disease outbreak: West Africa, 2014
Conclusion
Discussion questions
References
Online resources
Index

Policy & Politics in Nursing and Health Care 8th Edition PDF eBook