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Human Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition 12th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: Elaine Marieb, Katja Hoehn (Author)
  • File Size: 114 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1336 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 12th edition (19 Sept. 2022)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1292421800
  • ISBN-13: 978-1292421803

Download Human Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition 12th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: Elaine Marieb, Katja Hoehn (Author)
  • File Size: 114 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1336 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 12th edition (19 Sept. 2022)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1292421800
  • ISBN-13: 978-1292421803

Download Human Anatomy & Physiology, Global Edition 12th Edition PDF – eBook

Contents

UNIT 1 Organization of the Body
1 The Human Body: An Orientation 31
1.1 Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology) 32
1.2 The body’s organization ranges from atoms to the entire
organism 34
1.3 What are the requirements for life? 35
1.4 Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback 39
1.5 Anatomical terms describe body directions, regions, and
planes 42
A CLOSER LOOK Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body 46
1.6 Many internal organs lie in the membrane-lined body
cavities 48
2 Chemistry Comes Alive 53
PART 1 BASIC CHEMISTRY 54
2.1 Matter is the stuff of the universe and energy moves
matter 54
2.2 The properties of an element depend on the structure of
its atoms 55
2.3 Atoms bound together form molecules; different
molecules can make mixtures 58
2.4 Three types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and
hydrogen 61
2.5 Chemical reactions occur when electrons are shared,
gained, or lost 65
PART 2 BIOCHEMISTRY 68
2.6 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, and many acids
and bases 68
2.7 Organic compounds are made by dehydration synthesis
and broken down by hydrolysis 71
2.8 Carbohydrates provide an easily used energy source for
the body 73
2.9 Lipids insulate body organs, build cell membranes, and
provide stored energy 75
2.10 Proteins are the body’s basic structural material and have
many vital functions 78
2.11 DNA and RNA store, transmit and help express genetic
information 83
2.12 ATP transfers energy to other compounds 85
3 Cells: The Living Units 90
3.1 Cells are the smallest unit of life 91
PART 1 PLASMA MEMBRANE 93
3.2 The plasma membrane is a double layer of phospholipids
with embedded proteins 93
FOCUS FIGURE 3.1 The Plasma Membrane 94
3.3 Passive membrane transport is the diffusion of molecules
down their concentration gradient 98
3.4 Active membrane transport directly or indirectly uses
ATP 103
FOCUS FIGURE 3.2 Primary Active Transport: The Na+-K+
Pump 104
3.5 Selective diffusion establishes the membrane
potential 109
3.6 Cell adhesion molecules and membrane receptors allow
the cell to interact with its environment 111
FOCUS FIGURE 3.3 G Proteins 112
PART 2 THE CYTOPLASM 113
3.7 Cytoplasmic organelles each perform a specialized
task 113
3.8 Cilia and microvilli are two main types of cellular
extensions 120

Contents 23
PART 3 NUCLEUS 121
3.9 The nucleus includes the nuclear envelope, the nucleolus,
and chromatin 121
3.10 The cell cycle consists of interphase and a mitotic phase 126
3.11 Messenger RNA carries instructions from DNA for
building proteins 128
FOCUS FIGURE 3.4 Mitosis 130
FOCUS FIGURE 3.5 Translation 136
3.12 Autophagy and proteasomes dispose of unneeded
organelles and proteins; apoptosis disposes of unneeded
cells 138
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Cells 139
4 Tissue: The Living Fabric 145
4.1 Tissue samples are fixed, sliced, and stained for
microscopy 147
4.2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities, and
forms glands 147
4.3 Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely
distributed tissue in the body 156
4.4 Muscle tissue is responsible for body movement 168
4.5 Nervous tissue is a specialized tissue of the nervous
system 170
4.6 The cutaneous membrane is dry; mucous and serous
membranes are wet 171
4.7 Tissue repair involves inflammation, organization, and
regeneration 172
A CLOSER LOOK Cancer—The Intimate Enemy 174
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Tissues 176
UNIT 2 Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
5 The Integumentary System 180
5.1 The skin consists of two layers: the epidermis and
dermis 180
5.2 The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous
epithelium 182
5.3 The dermis consists of papillary dermis and reticular
dermis 184
5.4 Melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin determine skin
color 186
5.5 Hair consists of dead, keratinized cells 187
5.6 Nails are scale-like modifications of the epidermis 190
5.7 Sweat glands help control body temperature, and
sebaceous glands secrete sebum 191
5.8 First and foremost, the skin is a barrier 193
5.9 Skin cancer and burns are major challenges to the
body 195
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Integumentary System 197
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 198
6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 203
6.1 Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage help form the
skeleton 204
6.2 Bones perform several important functions 205
6.3 Bones are classified by their location and shape 206
6.4 The gross structure of all bones consists of compact bone
sandwiching spongy bone 206
6.5 Bones develop either by intramembranous or
endochondral ossification 214
6.6 Bone remodeling involves bone deposition and
removal 218
6.7 Bone repair involves hematoma and callus formation, and
remodeling 220
6.8 Bone disorders result from abnormal bone deposition and
resorption 223
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Bones 224
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 226
7 The Skeleton 229
PART 1 THE AXIAL SKELETON 229
7.1 The skull consists of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial
bones 231
7.2 The vertebral column is a flexible, curved support
structure 248
7.3 The thoracic cage is the bony structure of the chest 254
PART 2 THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON 257
7.4 Each pectoral girdle consists of a clavicle and a scapula 257
7.5 The upper limb consists of the arm, forearm, and hand 260
7.6 The hip bones attach to the sacrum, forming the pelvic
girdle 266
7.7 The lower limb consists of the thigh, leg, and foot 270
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Skeleton 276

24 Contents
8 Joints 281
8.1 Joints are classified into three structural and three
functional categories 281
8.2 In fibrous joints, the bones are connected by fibrous
tissue 282
8.3 In cartilaginous joints, the bones are connected by
cartilage 283
8.4 Synovial joints have a fluid-filled joint cavity 284
FOCUS FIGURE 8.1 Synovial Joints 292
8.5 Five examples illustrate the diversity of synovial joints 294
8.6 Joints are easily damaged by injury, inflammation, and
degeneration 302
A CLOSER LOOK Joints: From Medieval Armor to Bionic
Humans 304
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Joints 305
9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue 309
9.1 There are three types of muscle tissue 310
9.2 A skeletal muscle is made up of muscle fibers, nerves,
blood vessels, and connective tissues 311
9.3 Skeletal muscle fibers contain calcium-regulated molecular
motors 314
9.4 Motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to
contract 320
FOCUS FIGURE 9.1 Events at the Neuromuscular Junction 322
FOCUS FIGURE 9.2 Excitation-Contraction Coupling 324
FOCUS FIGURE 9.3 Cross Bridge Cycle 327
9.5 Temporal summation and motor unit recruitment allow
smooth, graded skeletal muscle contractions 328
9.6 ATP for muscle contraction is produced aerobically or
anaerobically 333
9.7 The force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle
contractions are determined by a variety of factors 336
9.8 How does skeletal muscle respond to exercise? 339
9.9 Smooth muscle is nonstriated involuntary muscle 340
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Muscles 346
A CLOSER LOOK Athletes Looking Good and Doing Better with
Anabolic Steroids? 347
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 348
10 The Muscular System 353
10.1 For any movement, muscles can act in one of three
ways 354
10.2 How are skeletal muscles named? 354
FOCUS FIGURE 10.1 Muscle Action 355
10.3 Fascicle arrangements help determine muscle shape and
force 356
10.4 Muscles acting with bones form lever systems 357
10.5 A muscle’s origin and insertion determine its action 362
Table 10.1 Muscles of the Head, Part I: Facial Expression 363
Table 10.2 Muscles of the Head, Part II: Mastication and
Tongue Movement 366
Table 10.3 Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat:
Swallowing 368
Table 10.4 Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head
Movements and Trunk Extension 370
Table 10.5 Deep Muscles of the Thorax: Breathing 374
Table 10.6 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall: Trunk Movements
and Compression of Abdominal Viscera 376
Table 10.7 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum: Support
of Abdominopelvic Organs 378
Table 10.8 Superficial Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior
Thorax: Movements of the Scapula and Arm 380
Table 10.9 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of
the Arm (Humerus) 384
Table 10.10 Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint: Flexion and
Extension of the Forearm 387
Table 10.11 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist,
Hand, and Fingers 388
Table 10.12 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Arm,
Forearm, and Hand 392
Table 10.13 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements of
the Fingers 394
Table 10.14 Muscles Crossing the Hip and Knee Joints:
Movements of the Thigh and Leg 397
Table 10.15 Muscles of the Leg: Movements of the Ankle and
Toes 404
Table 10.16 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Toe Movement and
Arch Support 410
Table 10.17 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Thigh,
Leg, and Foot 414

Contents 25
UNIT 3 Regulation and Integration of the Body
11 Fundamentals of the Nervous
System and Nervous Tissue 420
11.1 The nervous system receives, integrates, and responds to
information 421
11.2 Neuroglia support and maintain neurons 422
11.3 Neurons are the structural units of the nervous system 424
11.4 The resting membrane potential depends on differences
in ion concentration and permeability 431
FOCUS FIGURE 11.1 Resting Membrane Potential 433
11.5 Graded potentials are brief, short-distance signals within
a neuron 435
11.6 Action potentials are brief, long-distance signals within a
neuron 436
FOCUS FIGURE 11.2 Action Potential 438
11.7 Synapses transmit signals between neurons 443
FOCUS FIGURE 11.3 Chemical Synapse 446
11.8 Postsynaptic potentials excite or inhibit the receiving
neuron 447
11.9 The effect of a neurotransmitter depends on its
receptor 449
FOCUS FIGURE 11.4 Postsynaptic Potentials and Their
Summation 450
11.10 Neurons act together, making complex behaviors
possible 457
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Neurons 458
A CLOSER LOOK Pleasure and Addiction 460
12 The Central Nervous System 466
12.1 Folding during development determines the complex
structure of the adult brain 467
12.2 The cerebral hemispheres consist of cortex, white matter,
and the basal nuclei 471
12.3 The diencephalon includes the thalamus, hypothalamus,
and epithalamus 479
12.4 The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons, and
medulla oblongata 482
12.5 The cerebellum adjusts motor output, ensuring
coordination and balance 486
12.6 Functional brain systems span multiple brain
structures 488
12.7 The interconnected structures of the brain allow higher
mental functions 490
12.8 The brain is protected by bone, meninges, cerebrospinal
fluid, and the blood brain barrier 496
12.9 Brain injuries and disorders have devastating
consequences 500
12.10 The spinal cord is a reflex center and conduction
pathway 502
12.11 Neuronal pathways carry sensory and motor information
to and from the brain 508
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Central Nervous System 514
13 The Peripheral Nervous System and
Reflex Activity 521
PART 1 SENSORY RECEPTORS AND SENSATION 522
13.1 Sensory receptors are activated by changes in the internal
or external environment 522
13.2 Receptors, ascending pathways, and cerebral cortex
process sensory information 525
PART 2 TRANSMISSION LINES: NERVES AND
THEIR STRUCTURE AND REPAIR 528
13.3 Nerves are cordlike bundles of axons that conduct
sensory and motor impulses 528
13.4 There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves 530
13.5 31 pairs of spinal nerves innervate the body 539
PART 3 MOTOR ENDINGS AND MOTOR ACTIVITY 549
13.6 Peripheral motor endings connect nerves to their
effectors 549
13.7 There are three levels of motor control 549
PART 4 REFLEX ACTIVITY 551
13.8 The reflex arc enables rapid and predictable responses 551
13.9 Spinal reflexes are somatic reflexes mediated by the
spinal cord 552
FOCUS FIGURE 13.1 Stretch Reflex 554
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Peripheral Nervous
System 558
14 The Autonomic Nervous
System 563
14.1 The ANS differs from the somatic nervous system in that
it can stimulate or inhibit its effectors 564

26 Contents
14.2 The ANS consists of the parasympathetic and
sympathetic divisions 566
14.3 Long preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate in
the craniosacral CNS 568
14.4 Short preganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the
thoracolumbar CNS 570
14.5 Visceral reflex arcs have the same five components as
somatic reflex arcs 574
14.6 Acetylcholine and norepinephrine are the major ANS
neurotransmitters 575
14.7 The parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions usually
produce opposite effects 577
14.8 The hypothalamus oversees ANS activity 579
14.9 Most ANS disorders involve abnormalities in smooth
muscle control 580
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the ANS 580
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 582
15 The Special Senses 585
PART 1 THE EYE AND VISION 586
15.1 The eye has three layers, a lens, and humor, and is
surrounded by accessory structures 586
15.2 The cornea and lens focus light on the retina 595
15.3 Phototransduction begins when light activates visual
pigments in retinal photoreceptors 599
15.4 Visual information from the retina passes through the relay
nuclei to the visual cortex 605
PART 2 THE CHEMICAL SENSES: SMELL AND TASTE 607
15.5 Airborne chemicals are detected by olfactory receptors in
the nose 607
15.6 Dissolved chemicals are detected by receptor cells in taste
buds 610
PART 3 THE EAR: HEARING AND BALANCE 612
15.7 The ear has three major areas 612
15.8 Sound is a pressure wave that stimulates
mechanosensitive cochlear hair cells 617
15.9 Sound information is processed and relayed through brain
stem and thalamic nuclei to the auditory cortex 621
15.10 Hair cells in the maculae and cristae ampullares monitor
head position and movement 622
15.11 Ear abnormalities can affect hearing, equilibrium, or
both 626
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Special Senses 627
16 The Endocrine System 633
16.1 The endocrine system is one of the body’s two major
control systems 634
16.2 The chemical structure of a hormone determines how
it acts 635
16.3 Hormones act through second messengers or by
activating specific genes 635
16.4 Three types of stimuli cause hormone release 639
16.5 Cells respond to a hormone if they have a receptor for
that hormone 640
16.6 The hypothalamus controls the release of hormones from the
pituitary gland in two different ways 641
FOCUS FIGURE 16.1 Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Interactions 642
16.7 The thyroid gland controls metabolism 649
16.8 The parathyroid glands are primary regulators of blood
calcium levels 653
16.9 The adrenal glands produce hormones involved in
electrolyte balance and the stress response 654
16.10 The pineal gland secretes melatonin 659
FOCUS FIGURE 16.2 Stress and the Adrenal Gland 660
16.11 The pancreas, gonads, and most other organs secrete
hormones 662
A CLOSER LOOK Sweet Revenge: Taming the Diabetes
Monster? 665
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Endocrine System 668
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 669
UNIT 4 Maintenance of the Body
17 Blood 674
17.1 The functions of blood are transport, regulation, and
protection 675
17.2 Blood consists of plasma and formed elements 675
17.3 Erythrocytes play a crucial role in oxygen and carbon
dioxide transport 677
17.4 Leukocytes defend the body 683
17.5 Platelets are cell fragments that help stop bleeding 689
17.6 Hemostasis prevents blood loss 689
17.7 Transfusion can replace lost blood 695
17.8 Blood tests give insights into a patient’s health 698
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Blood 698

Contents 27
18 The Cardiovascular System:
The Heart 702
18.1 The heart has four chambers and pumps blood through
the pulmonary and systemic circuits 703
18.2 Heart valves make blood flow in one direction 711
18.3 Blood flows from the atrium to the ventricle, and then to either
the lungs or the rest of the body 712
FOCUS FIGURE 18.1 Blood Flow through the Heart 713
18.4 Intercalated discs connect cardiac muscle fibers into a
functional syncytium 715
18.5 Pacemaker cells trigger action potentials throughout
the heart 718
18.6 The cardiac cycle describes the mechanical events
associated with blood flow through the heart 724
FOCUS FIGURE 18.2 The Cardiac Cycle 726
18.7 Stroke volume and heart rate are regulated to alter
cardiac output 728
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Heart 732
19 The Cardiovascular System:
Blood Vessels 738
PART 1 BLOOD VESSEL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 739
19.1 Most blood vessel walls have three layers 741
19.2 Arteries are pressure reservoirs, distributing vessels, or
resistance vessels 742
19.3 Capillaries are exchange vessels 742
19.4 Veins are blood reservoirs that return blood toward the
heart 744
19.5 Anastomoses are special interconnections between blood
vessels 746
PART 2 PHYSIOLOGY OF CIRCULATION 746
19.6 Blood flows from high to low pressure against
resistance 746
19.7 Blood pressure decreases as blood flows from arteries
through capillaries and into veins 748
19.8 Blood pressure is regulated by short- and long-term
controls 750
19.9 Intrinsic and extrinsic controls determine blood flow
through tissues 757
19.10 Slow blood flow through capillaries promotes diffusion
of nutrients and gases, and bulk flow of fluids 762
FOCUS FIGURE 19.1 Bulk Flow across Capillary Walls 764
PART 3 CIRCULATORY PATHWAYS: BLOOD VESSELS OF THE
BODY 766
19.11 The vessels of the systemic circulation transport blood to
all body tissues 767
Table 19.3 Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations 768
Table 19.4 The Aorta and Major Arteries of the Systemic
Circulation 770
Table 19.5 Arteries of the Head and Neck 772
Table 19.6 Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax 774
Table 19.7 Arteries of the Abdomen 776
Table 19.8 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 780
Table 19.9 The Venae Cavae and the Major Veins of the
Systemic Circulation 782
Table 19.10 Veins of the Head and Neck 784
Table 19.11 Veins of the Upper Limbs and Thorax 786
Table 19.12 Veins of the Abdomen 788
Table 19.13 Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 790
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Blood Vessels 791
A CLOSER LOOK Atherosclerosis? Get Out the Cardiovascular
Drain Cleaner 792
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 793
20 The Lymphatic System and
Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 798
20.1 The lymphatic system includes lymphatic vessels, lymph,
and lymph nodes 799
20.2 Lymphoid cells and tissues are found in lymphoid organs
and in the connective tissue of other organs 802
20.3 Lymph nodes cleanse lymph and house lymphocytes 803
20.4 The spleen removes bloodborne pathogens and aged red
blood cells 805
20.5 MALT guards the body’s entryways against pathogens 806
20.6 T lymphocytes mature in the thymus 808
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Lymphatic System and
Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 808
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 810
21 The Immune System: Innate and
Adaptive Body Defenses 813
PART 1 INNATE DEFENSES 814
21.1 Surface barriers act as the first line of defense to keep
invaders out of the body 814

28 Contents
21.2 Innate internal defenses are cells and chemicals that act
as the second line of defense 815
PART 2 ADAPTIVE DEFENSES 822
21.3 Antigens are substances that trigger the body’s adaptive
defenses 823
21.4 B and T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are
cells of the adaptive immune response 824
21.5 In humoral immunity, antibodies are produced that
target extracellular antigens 828
21.6 Cellular immunity consists of T lymphocytes that direct
adaptive immunity or attack cellular targets 833
FOCUS FIGURE 21.1 An Example of a Primary Immune
Response 840
A CLOSER LOOK COVID-19 843
21.7 Insufficient or overactive immune responses create
problems 844
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Immune System 847
22 The Respiratory System 852
PART 1 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY 854
22.1 The upper respiratory system warms, humidifies, and
filters air 854
22.2 The lower respiratory system consists of conducting and
respiratory zone structures 858
22.3 Each multilobed lung occupies its own pleural cavity 867
PART 2 RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY 868
22.4 Volume changes cause pressure changes, which cause air
to move 868
22.5 Measuring respiratory volumes, capacities, and flow rates
helps us assess ventilation 874
22.6 Gases exchange by diffusion between the blood, lungs,
and tissues 876
22.7 Oxygen is transported by hemoglobin, and carbon
dioxide is transported in three different ways 881
FOCUS FIGURE 22.1 The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation
Curve 882
22.8 Respiratory centers in the brain stem control breathing with
input from chemoreceptors and higher brain centers 887
22.9 Exercise and high altitude bring about respiratory
adjustments 891
22.10 Respiratory diseases are major causes of disability and
death 892
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Respiratory System 894
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 896
23 The Digestive System 902
PART 1 OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 903
23.1 What major processes occur during digestive system
activity? 904
23.2 The GI tract has four layers and is usually surrounded by
peritoneum 905
23.3 The GI tract has its own nervous system called the enteric
nervous system 908
PART 2 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM 909
23.4 Ingestion occurs only at the mouth 910
23.5 The pharynx and esophagus move food from the mouth
to the stomach 915
23.6 The stomach temporarily stores food and begins protein
digestion 918
23.7 The liver secretes bile; the pancreas secretes digestive
enzymes 927
23.8 The small intestine is the major site for digestion and
absorption 934
23.9 The large intestine absorbs water and eliminates
feces 940
PART 3 PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION AND
ABSORPTION 946
23.10 Digestion hydrolyzes food into nutrients that are
absorbed across the gut epithelium 946
23.11 How is each type of nutrient processed? 946
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Digestive System 952
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 954
24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Energy
Balance 960
PART 1 NUTRIENTS 961
24.1 Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins supply energy and are
used as building blocks 961
24.2 Most vitamins act as coenzymes; minerals have many
roles in the body 965
PART 2 METABOLISM 967
24.3 Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical reactions in the
body 968
24.4 Carbohydrate metabolism is the central player in ATP
production 970
FOCUS FIGURE 24.1 Oxidative Phosphorylation 975

Contents 29
24.5 Lipid metabolism is key for long-term energy storage and
release 980
24.6 Amino acids are used to build proteins or for energy 982
24.7 Energy is stored in the absorptive state and released in
the postabsorptive state 983
24.8 The liver metabolizes, stores, and detoxifies 989
A CLOSER LOOK Obesity: Magical Solution Wanted 992
PART 3 ENERGY BALANCE 994
24.9 Neural and hormonal factors regulate food intake 994
24.10 Thyroxine is the major hormone that controls basal
metabolic rate 996
24.11 The hypothalamus acts as the body’s thermostat 997
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Nutrition and Metabolism 1002
25 The Urinary System 1008
25.1 The kidneys have three distinct regions and a rich blood
supply 1009
25.2 Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney 1012
25.3 Overview: Filtration, absorption, and secretion are the
key processes of urine formation 1017
25.4 Urine formation, step 1: The glomeruli make filtrate 1018
25.5 Urine formation, step 2: Most of the filtrate is reabsorbed
into the blood 1023
25.6 Urine formation, step 3: Certain substances are secreted
into the filtrate 1028
25.7 The kidneys create and use an osmotic gradient to
regulate urine concentration and volume 1029
FOCUS FIGURE 25.1 Medullary Osmotic Gradient 1030
25.8 Renal function is evaluated by analyzing blood and
urine 1034
25.9 The ureters, bladder, and urethra transport, store, and
eliminate urine 1036
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Urinary System 1040
26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
Balance 1046
26.1 Body fluids consist of water and solutes in three main
compartments 1047
26.2 Both intake and output of water are regulated 1050
26.3 Sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate levels are
tightly regulated 1053
26.4 Chemical buffers and respiratory regulation rapidly
minimize pH changes 1060
26.5 Renal regulation is a long-term mechanism for controlling
acid-base balance 1063
26.6 Abnormalities of acid-base balance are classified as
metabolic or respiratory 1067
A CLOSER LOOK Sleuthing: Using Blood Values to Determine
the Cause of Acidosis or Alkalosis 1068
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
Balance 1069
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 1070
UNIT 5 Continuity
27 The Reproductive System 1075
27.1 The male and female reproductive systems share
common features 1076
PART 1 ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1081
27.2 The testes are enclosed and protected by the
scrotum 1082
27.3 Sperm travel from the testes to the body exterior through
a system of ducts 1084
27.4 The penis is the copulatory organ of the male 1084
27.5 The male accessory glands produce the bulk of
semen 1086
PART 2 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1087
27.6 The male sexual response includes erection and
ejaculation 1087
27.7 Spermatogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to
formation of sperm 1088
27.8 Male reproductive function is regulated by the hypothalamic,
anterior pituitary, and testicular hormones 1093
PART 3 ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1094
27.9 Immature eggs develop in follicles in the ovaries 1095
27.10 The female duct system includes the uterine tubes,
uterus, and vagina 1096
27.11 The external genitalia of the female include those
structures that lie external to the vagina 1101
27.12 The mammary glands produce milk 1102

30 Contents
PART 4 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1103
27.13 Oogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to the
formation of ova 1103
27.14 The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase and the
luteal phase 1107
27.15 Female reproductive function is regulated by the hypothalamic,
anterior pituitary, and ovarian hormones 1108
27.16 The female sexual response is more diverse and complex
than that of males 1112
PART 5 SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 1114
27.17 Sexually transmitted infections cause reproductive and
other disorders 1114
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Reproductive System 1115
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 1119
28 Pregnancy and Human
Development 1125
28.1 Fertilization combines the sperm and egg chromosomes,
forming a zygote 1126
FOCUS FIGURE 28.1 Sperm Penetration and the Blocks to
Polyspermy 1128
28.2 Embryonic development begins as the zygote undergoes
cleavage and forms a blastocyst en route to the
uterus 1131
28.3 Implantation occurs when the embryo burrows into the
uterine wall, triggering placenta formation 1132
28.4 Embryonic events include gastrula formation and tissue
differentiation, which are followed by the rapid growth of
the fetus 1136
FOCUS FIGURE 28.2 Fetal and Newborn Circulation 1142
28.5 During pregnancy, the mother undergoes anatomical,
physiological, and metabolic changes 1146
28.6 The three stages of labor are dilation, expulsion, and
placental stages 1148
28.7 An infant’s extrauterine adjustments include taking the
first breath and closure of vascular shunts 1150
28.8 Lactation is milk secretion by the mammary glands in
response to prolactin 1150
A CLOSER LOOK Contraception 1152
28.9 Assisted reproductive technology may help an infertile
the couple have offspring 1153
29 Heredity 1158
29.1 Genes are the vocabulary of genetics 1159
29.2 Genetic variation results from independent assortment,
crossing over, and random fertilization 1160
29.3 Several patterns of inheritance have long been
known 1162
29.4 Environmental factors may influence or override gene
expression 1165
29.5 Factors other than nuclear DNA sequence can determine
inheritance 1165
29.6 Genetic screening is used to detect genetic disorders 1167
Appendices
Answers Appendix 1173
A The Metric System 1190
B Functional Groups in Organic Molecules 1192
C The Amino Acids 1193
D Two Important Metabolic Pathways 1194
E Periodic Table of the Elements 1197
F Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine
Studies 1198
Glossary 1203
Photo and Illustration Credits 1225
Index 1227

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