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Human Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: Elaine Marieb, Katja Hoehn (Author)
  • File Size: 258 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1264 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 11th edition (January 5, 2018)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0134580990
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134580999

Download Human Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: Elaine Marieb, Katja Hoehn (Author)
  • File Size: 258 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1264 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 11th edition (January 5, 2018)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0134580990
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134580999

Download Human Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF – eBook

Contents
UNIT 1 Organization of the Body
1 The Human Body: An Orientation 1
1.1 Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology) 2
1.2 The body’s organization ranges from atoms to the entire
organism 4
1.3 What are the requirements for life? 5
1.4 Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback 9
1.5 Anatomical terms describe body directions, and regions. and
planes 12
A CLOSER LOOK Medical Imaging: Illuminating the Body 16
1.6 Many internal organs lie in the membrane-lined body
cavities 17
2 Chemistry Comes Alive 23
iiM;ili BASIC CHEMISTRY 24
2.1 Matter is the stuff of the universe and energy moves
matter 24
2.2 The properties of an element depend on the structure of
its atoms 25
2.3 Atoms bound together form molecules; different
molecules can make mixtures 28
2.4 The three types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and
hydrogen 31
2.5 Chemical reactions occur when electrons are shared,
gained, or lost 35
1:fij;1fj BIOCHEMISTRY 38
2.6 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, and many acids
and bases 38
2.7 Organic compounds are made by dehydration synthesis
and broken down by hydrolysis 41
••
XII
2.8 Carbohydrates provide an easily used energy source for
the body 43
2.9 Lipids insulate body organs, build cell membranes, and
provide stored energy 45
2.10 Proteins are the body’s basic structural material and have
many vital functions 48
2.11 DNA and RNA store, transmit, and help express genetic
information 53
2.12 ATP transfers energy to other compounds 55
3 Cells: The Living Units 60
3.1 Cells are the smallest unit of life 61
iiti1;ili PLASMA MEMBRANE 63
3.2 The plasma membrane is a double layer of phospholipids
with embedded proteins 63
FOCUS FIGURE 3. 1 The Plasma Membrane 64
3.3 Passive membrane transport is the diffusion of molecules
down their concentration gradient 68
3.4 Active membrane transport directly or indirectly uses
ATP 73
Focus FIGURE 3.2 Primary Active Transport: The Na+-K+
Pump 74
3.5 Selective diffusion establishes the membrane
potential 79
3.6 Cell adhesion molecules and membrane receptors allow
the cell to interact with its environment 81
FOCUS FIGURE 3.3 G Proteins 82
1itj;1fj THE CYTOPLASM 83
3.7 Cytoplasmic organelles each perform a specialized
task 83
3.8 Cilia and microvilli are two main types of cellular
extensions 90
1:tl,111 NUCLEUS 91
3.9 The nucleus includes the nuclear envelope, the nucleolus,
and chromatin 91
3.10 The cell cycle consists of an interphase and a mitotic phase 95
3.11 Messenger RNA carries instructions from DNA for
building proteins 98
FOCUS FIGURE 3.4 M mitosis 100
FOCUS FIGURE 3.5 Translation 105
3.12 Autophagy and proteasomes dispose of unneeded
organelles and proteins; apoptosis disposes of unneeded
cells 108
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Cells 109
4 Tissue: The Living Fabric 115
4.1 Tissue samples are fixed, sliced, and stained for
microscopy 117
4.2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities, and
forms glands 11 7
4.3 Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely
distributed tissue in the body 125
4.4 Muscle tissue is responsible for body movement 138
4.5 Nervous tissue is a specialized tissue of the nervous
system 140
4.6 The cutaneous membrane is dry; mucous and serous
membranes are wet 141
4.7 Tissue repair involves inflammation, organization, and
regeneration 142
A CLOSER LOOK Cancer- The Intimate Enemy 144
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Tissues 145
UNIT 2 Covering, Support, and Movement of the Body
5 The lntegumentary System 1 50
5.1 The skin consists of two layers: the epidermis and
dermis 150
5.2 The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous
epithelium 152
5.3 The dermis consists of papillary dermis and reticular
dermis 154
5.4 Melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin determine skin
color 155
5.5 Hair consists of dead, keratinized cells 157
••• Contents XIII
5.6 Nails are scale-like modifications of the epidermis 150
5.7 Sweat glands help control body temperature, and
sebaceous glands secrete sebum 151
5.8 First and foremost, the skin is a barrier 153
5.9 Skin cancer and burns are major challenges to the
body 155
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the lntegumentary System 157
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 158
6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues 173
6.1 Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage help form the
skeleton 174
6.2 Bones perform several important functions 175
6.3 Bones are classified by their location and shape 175
6.4 The gross structure of all bones consists of compact bone
sandwiching spongy bone 175
6.5 Bones develop either by intramembranous or
endochondral ossification 184
6.6 Bone remodeling involves bone deposition and
removal 188
6.7 Bone repair involves hematoma and callus formation, and
remodeling 190
6.8 Bone disorders result from abnormal bone deposition and
resorption 193
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Bones 194
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 195
7 The Skeleton 199
i:ti;ili THE AXIAL SKELETON 199
7.1 The skull consists of 8 cranial bones and 14 facial
bones 20 1
7.2 The vertebral column is a flexible, curved support
structure 218
7.3 The thoracic cage is the bony structure of the chest 224
i:ti;jfj THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON 227
7.4 Each pectoral girdle consists of a clavicle and a scapula 227
7.5 The upper limb consists of the arm. forearm, and hand 230
7.6 The hip bones attach to the sacrum, forming the pelvic
girdle 235
7.7 The lower limb consists of the thigh, leg, and foot 240
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Skeleton 245
• XIV Contents
8 Joints 251
8.1 Joints are classified into three structural and three
functional categories 251
8.2 In fibrous joints, the bones are connected by fibrous
tissue 252
8.3 In cartilaginous joints, the bones are connected by
cartilage 253
8.4 Synovial joints have a fluid-filled joint cavity 2 54
FOCUS FIGURE 8. 1 Synovial Joints 262
8.5 Five examples illustrate the diversity of synovial joints 264
8.6 Joints are easily damaged by injury, inflammation, and
degeneration 272
A CLOSER LOOK Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor to
Bionic Humans 274
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Joints 275
9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue 279
9.1 There are three types of muscle tissue 280
9.2 A skeletal muscle is made up of muscle fibers, nerves,
blood vessels, and connective tissues 281
9.3 Skeletal muscle fibers contain calcium-regulated molecular
motors 284
9.4 Motor neurons stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to
contract 290
Focus FIGURE 9 . 1 Event at the Neuromuscular Junction 292
Focus FIGURE 9 .2 Excitation-Contraction Coupling 294
FOCUS FIGURE 9 .3 Cross Bridge Cycle 297
9.5 Temporal summation and motor unit recruitment allow
smooth, graded skeletal muscle contractions 298
9.6 ATP for muscle contraction is produced aerobically or
anaerobically 303
9.7 The force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle
contractions are determined by a variety of factors 306
9.8 How does skeletal muscle respond to exercise? 309
9.9 Smooth muscle is nonstriated involuntary muscle 310
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Muscles 316
A CLOSER LOOK Athletes Looking Good and Doing Better with
Anabolic Steroids? 317
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 318
1 0 The Muscular System 323
10.1 For any movement, muscles can act in one of three
ways 324
10.2 How are skeletal muscles named? 324
FOCUS FIGURE 10.1 Muscle Action 325
10.3 Fascicle arrangements help determine muscle shape and
force 326
10.4 Muscles acting with bones form lever systems 327
10.5 A muscle’s origin and insertion determine its action 332
Table 10.1 Muscles of the Head, Part I: Facial Expression 333
Table 10.2 Muscles of the Head, Part II: Mastication and
Tongue Movement 336
Table 10.3 Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat:
Swallowing 338
Table 10.4 Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head
Movements and Trunk Extension 340
Table 10.5 Deep Muscles of the Thorax: Breathing 344
Table 10.6 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall: Trunk Movements
and Compression of Abdominal Viscera 346
Table 10.7 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum: Support
of Abdominopelvic Organs 348
Table 10.8 Superficial Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior
Thorax: Movements of the Scapula and Arm 350
Table 10.9 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of
the Arm (Humerus) 354
Table 10.10 Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint: Flexion and
Extension of the Forearm 357
Table 10.11 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist,
Hand, and Fingers 358
Table 10.12 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Arm,
Forearm, and Hand 362
Table 10.13 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements of
the Fingers 364
Table 10.14 Muscles Crossing the Hip and Knee Joints:
Movements of the Thigh and Leg 367
Table 10.15 Muscles of the Leg: Movements of the Ankle and
Toes 374
Table 10.16 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot: Toe Movement and
Arch Support 380
Table 10.17 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Thigh,
Leg, and Foot 384
UNIT 3 Regulation and Integration of the Body
11 Fundamentals of the Nervous
System and Nervous Tissue 390
11.1 The nervous system receives, integrates, and responds to
information 391
11.2 Neuroglia support and maintain neurons 392
11.3 Neurons are the structural units of the nervous system 394
11.4 The resting membrane potential depends on differences
in ion concentration and permeability 400
FOCUS FIGURE 11 .1 Resting Membrane Potential 402
11.5 Graded potentials are brief. short-distance signals within
a neuron 404
11.6 Action potentials are brief, long-distance signals within a
neuron 405
FOCUS FIGURE 11.2 Action Potential 406
11.7 Synapses transmit signals between neurons 4 12
FOCUS FIGURE 11.3 Chemical Synapse 415
11.8 Postsynaptic potentials excite or inhibit the receiving
neuron 4 16
Focus FIGURE 11.4 Postsynaptic Potentials and Their
Summation 4 18
11.9 The effect of a neurotransmitter depends on its
receptor 42 0
11.10 Neurons act together, making complex behaviors
possible 426
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Neurons 428
A CLOSER LOOK Pleasure Me, Pleasure Me! 429
1 2 The Central Nervous System 434
12.1 Folding during development determines the complex
structure of the adult brain 435
12.2 The cerebral hemispheres consist of cortex, white matter,
and the basal nuclei 439
12.3 The diencephalon includes the thalamus, hypothalamus,
and epithalamus 447
12.4 The brain stem consists of the midbrain, and pons. and
medulla oblongata 450
12.5 The cerebellum adjusts motor output, ensuring
coordination and balance 454
12.6 Functional brain systems span multiple brains
structures 456
Contents xv
12.7 The interconnected structures of the brain allow higher
mental functions 458
12.8 The brain is protected by bone, meninges, cerebrospinal
fluid, and the blood-brain barrier 464
12.9 Brain injuries and disorders have devastating
consequences 468
12.10 The spinal cord is a reflex center and conduction
pathway 470
12.11 Neuronal pathways carry sensory and motor information
to and from the brain 4 76
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Central Nervous System 482
1 3 The Peripheral Nervous System and
Reflex Activity 489
i:fi”iiili SENSORY RECEPTORS AND SENSATION 490
13.1 Sensory receptors are activated by changes in the internal
or external environment 490
13.2 Receptors, ascending pathways, and cerebral cortex
process sensory information 493
i:fi”iijfj TRANSMISSION LINES: NERVES AND
THEIR STRUCTURE AND REPAIR 496
13.3 Nerves are cordlike bundles of axons that conduct
sensory and motor impulses 496
13.4 There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves 498
13.5 31 pairs of spinal nerves innervate the body 507
1:fi”j:1s1 MOTOR ENDINGS AND MOTOR ACTIVITY 51 7
13.6 Peripheral motor endings connect nerves to their
effectors 517
13. 7 There are three levels of motor control 517
i:fii:ili REFLEX ACTIVITY 5 19
13.8 The reflex arc enables rapid and predictable responses 519
13.9 Spinal reflexes are somatic reflexes mediated by the
spinal cord 520
FOCUS FIGURE 13.1 Stretch Reflex 522
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Peripheral Nervous
System 526
14 The Autonomic Nervous
System 531
14.1 The ANS differs from the somatic nervous system in that
it can stimulate or inhibit its effectors 532
• XVI Contents
14.2 The ANS consists of the parasympathetic and
sympathetic divisions 534
14.3 Long preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate in
the craniosacral CNS 536
14.4 Short preganglionic sympathetic fibers originate in the
thoracolumbar CNS 538
14.5 Visceral reflex arcs have the same five components as
somatic reflex arcs 542
14.6 Acetylcholine and norepinephrine are the major ANS
neurotransmitters 543
14.7 The parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions usually
produce opposite effects 545
14.8 The hypothalamus oversees ANS activity 54 7
14.9 Most ANS disorders involve abnormalities in smooth
muscle control 548
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the ANS 548
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 550
1 5 The Special Senses 533
i:ti”Uii THE EYE AND VISION 554
15.1 The eye has three layers, a lens, and humors, and is
surrounded by accessory structures 554
15.2 The cornea and lens focus light on the retina 563
15.3 Phototransduction begins when light activates visual
pigments in retinal photoreceptors 567
15.4 Visual information from the retina passes through the relay
nuclei to the visual cortex 573
1:f;j;jfj THE CHEMICAL SENSES: SMELL AND TASTE 57 5
15.5 Airborne chemicals are detected by olfactory receptors in
the nose 575
15.6 Dissolved chemicals are detected by receptor cells in taste
buds 578
1:(;j;1i1 THE EAR: H EARi NG AND BALANCE 580
15.7 The ear has three major areas 580
15.8 Sound is a pressure wave that stimulates
mechanosensitive cochlear hair cells 585
15.9 Sound information is processed and relayed through brain
stem and thalamic nuclei to the auditory cortex 589
15.10 Hair cells in the maculae and cristae ampullares monitor
head position and movement 590
15.11 Ear abnormalities can affect hearing, equilibrium, or
both 594
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Special Senses 595
16 The Endocrine System 601
16.1 The endocrine system is one of the body’s two major
control systems 602
16.2 The chemical structure of a hormone determines how
it acts 603
16.3 Hormones act through second messengers or by
activating specific genes 603
16.4 Three types of stimuli cause hormone release 607
16.5 Cells respond to a hormone if they have a receptor for
that hormone 608
16.6 The hypothalamus controls release of hormones from the
pituitary gland in two different ways 609
FOCUS FIGURE 16.1 Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Interactions 610
16.7 The thyroid gland controls metabolism 617
16.8 The parathyroid glands are primary regulators of blood
calcium levels 621
16.9 The adrenal glands produce hormones involved in
electrolyte balance and the stress response 622
16.10 The pineal gland secretes melatonin 627
FOCUS FIGURE 16.2 Stress and the Adrenal Gland 628
16.11 The pancreas, gonads, and most other organs secrete
hormones 630
A CLOSER LOOK Sweet Revenge: Taming the Diabetes
Monster? 633
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Endocrine System 636
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 637
UNIT 4 Maintenance of the Body
17 Blood 642
17.1 The functions of blood are transport, regulation, and
protection 643
17.2 Blood consists of plasma and formed elements 643
17.3 Erythrocytes play a crucial role in oxygen and carbon
dioxide transport 645
17.4 Leukocytes defend the body 651
17.5 Platelets are cell fragments that help stop bleeding 657
17.6 Hemostasis prevents blood loss 657
17.7 Transfusion can replace lost blood 663
17.8 Blood tests give insights into a patient’s health 666
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Blood 666
1 8 The Cardiovascular System:
The Heart 670
18.1 The heart has four chambers and pumps blood through
the pulmonary and systemic circuits 67 1
18.2 Heart valves make blood flow in one direction 679
18.3 Blood flows from the atrium to the ventricle, and then to either
the lungs or the rest of the body 680
FOCUS FIGURE 18. 1 Blood Flow through the Heart 681
18.4 Intercalated discs connect cardiac muscle fibers into a
functional syncytium 683
18.5 Pacemaker cells trigger action potentials throughout
the heart 686
18.6 The cardiac cycle describes the mechanical events
associated with blood flow through the heart 692
FOCUS FIGURE 18.2 The Cardiac Cycle 694
18.7 Stroke volume and heart rate are regulated to alter
cardiac output 696
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Heart 700
1 9 The Cardiovascular System:
Blood Vessels 706
iitiliiii BLOOD VESSEL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 707
19.1 Most blood vessel walls have three layers 709
19.2 Arteries are pressure reservoirs, distributing vessels, or
resist nee vessels 710
19.3 Capillaries are exchange vessels 710
19,,4 Veins are blood reservoirs that return blood toward the
heart 712
19.5 Anastomoses are special interconnections between blood
vessels 714
1:f;);1fj PHYSIOLOGY OF CIRCULATION 7 14
19.6 Blood flows from high to low pressure against
resista nee 714
19.7 Blood pressure decreases as blood flows from arteries
through capillaries and into veins 716
19.8 Blood pressure is regulated by short- and long-term
controls 7 18
19.9 Intrinsic and extrinsic controls determine blood flow
through tissues 725
19.10 Slow blood flow through capillaries promotes diffusion
of nutrients and gases, and bulk flow of fluids 730
FOCUS FIGURE 19. 1 Bulk Flow across Capillary Walls 732
•• Contents XVII
i:tii:ili CIRCULATORY PATHWAYS: BLOOD VESSELS OF THE
BODY 734
19.11 The vessels of the systemic circulation transport blood to
all body tissues 735
Table 19.3 Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations 736
Table 19.4 The Aorta and Major Arteries of the Systemic
Circulation 738
Table 19.5 Arteries of the Head and Neck 7 40
Table 19.6 Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax 7 42
Table 19.7 Arteries of the Abdomen 744
Table 19.8 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 7 48
Table 19.9 The Venae Cavae and the Major Veins of the
Systemic Circulation 750
Table 19.10 Veins of the Head and Neck 752
Table 19.11 Veins of the Upper Limbs and Thorax 754
Table 19.12 Veins of the Abdomen 756
Table 19.13 Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 758
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Blood Vessels 759
A CLOSER LOOK Atherosclerosis? Get Out the Cardiovascular
Drano 760
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 761
2 0 The Lymphatic System and
Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 766
20.1 The lymphatic system includes lymphatic vessels, lymph,
and lymph nodes 767
20.2 Lymphoid cells and tissues are found in lymphoid organs
and in connective tissue of other organs 770
20.3 Lymph nodes cleanse lymph and house lymphocytes 771
20.4 The spleen removes bloodborne pathogens and aged red
blood cells 773
20.5 MALT guards the body’s entryways against pathogens 774
20.6 T lymphocytes mature in the thymus 776
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Lymphatic System and
Lymphoid Organs and Tissues 776
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 778
21 The Immune System: Innate and
Adaptive Body Defenses 781
i:tii;iii INNATE DEFENSES 782
21.1 Surface barriers act as the first line of defense to keep
invaders out of the body 782
•••
XVIII Contents
21.2 Innate internal defenses are cells and chemicals that act
as the second line of defense 783
1:fij;1fj ADAPTIVE DEFENSES 790
21.3 Antigens are substances that trigger the body’s adaptive
defenses 791
21.4 Band T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells are
cells of the adaptive immune response 792
21.5 In humeral immunity, antibodies are produced that
target extracellular antigens 796
21.6 Cellular immunity consists of T lymphocytes that direct
adaptive immunity or attack cellular targets 801
Focus FIGURE 2 1 .1 An Example of a Primary Immune
Response 808
21.7 Insufficient or overactive immune responses create
problems 8 11
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Immune System 814
2 2 The Respiratory System 818
iitUii FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY 820
22.1 The upper respiratory system warms, humidifies, and
fi lters air 820
22.2 The lower respiratory system consists of conducting and
respiratory zone structures 824
22.3 Each multilobed lung occupies its own pleural cavity 833
1i@;1fj RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY 834
22.4 Volume changes cause pressure changes, which cause air
to move 834
22.5 Measuring respiratory volumes, capacities, and flow rates
helps us assess ventilation 840
22.6 Gases exchange by diffusion between the blood, lungs,
and tissues 842
22.7 Oxygen is transported by hemoglobin, and carbon
dioxide is transported in three different ways 847
Focus FIGURE 22. 1 The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation
Curve 848
22.8 Respiratory centers in the brain stem control breathing
with input from chemoreceptors and higher brain
centers 853
22.9 Exercise and high altitude bring about respiratory
adjustments 857
22.10 Respiratory diseases are major causes of disability and
death 858
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Respiratory System 860
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 862
2 3 The Digestive System 868
iiM;ili OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 869
23.1 What major processes occur during digestive system
activity? 870
23.2 The GI tract has four layers and is usually surrounded by
peritoneum 87 1
23.3 The GI tract has its own nervous system called the enteric
nervous system 87 4
i:fii;jfj FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE
SYSTEM 87 5
23.4 Ingestion occurs only at the mouth 876
23.5 The pharynx and esophagus move food from the mouth
to the stomach 881
23.6 The stomach temporarily stores food and begins protein
digestion 884
23.7 The liver secretes bile; the pancreas secretes digestive
enzymes 893
23.8 The small intestine is the major site for digestion and
absorption 900
23.9 The large intestine absorbs water and eliminates
feces 906
1:fii;1l1 PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION AND
ABSORPTION 9 12
23.10 Digestion hydrolyzes food into nutrients that are
absorbed across the gut epithelium 9 12
23.11 How is each type of nutrient processed? 9 12
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Digestive System 918
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 920
24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Energy
Balance 926
i:fii;iii NUTRIENTS 927
24.1 Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins supply energy and are
used as building blocks 927
24.2 Most vitamins act as coenzymes; minerals have many
roles in the body 93 1
i:fii;jfj METABOLISM 933
24.3 Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical reactions in the
body 934
24.4 Carbohydrate metabolism is the central player in ATP
production 936
FOCUS FIGURE 24. 1 Oxidative Phosphorylation 941
24.5 Lipid metabolism is key for long-term energy storage and
release 946
24.6 Amino acids are used to build proteins or for energy 948
24.7 Energy is stored in the absorptive state and released in
the postabsorptive state 949
24.8 The liver metabolizes, stores, and detoxifies 955
A CLOSER LOOK Obesity: Magical Solution Wanted 958
iitUli ENERGY BALANCE 960
24.9 Neural and hormonal factors regulate food intake 960
24.1 o Thyroxine is the major hormone that controls basal
metabolic rate 962
24.11 The hypothalamus acts as the body’s thermostat 963
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Nutrition and Metabolism 968
2 5 The Urinary System 97 4
25.1 The kidneys have three distinct regions and a rich blood
supply 975
25.2 Nephrons are the functional units of the kidney 978
25.3 Overview: Filtration, absorption, and secretion are the
key processes of urine formation 983
25.4 Urine formation, step 1: The glomeruli make filtrate 984
25.5 Urine formation, step 2: Most of the fi ltrate is reabsorbed
into the blood 989
25.6 Urine formation, step 3: Certain substances are secreted
into the filtrate 994
25.7 The kidneys create and use an osmotic gradient to
regulate urine concentration and volume 995
FOCUS FIGURE 25.1 Medullary Osmotic Gradient 996
25.8 Renal function is evaluated by analyzing blood and
urine 1000
25.9 The ureters, bladder, and urethra transport, store, and
eliminate urine 1002
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Urinary System 1006
2 6 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
Balance 1 o 12
26.1 Body fluids consist of water and solutes in three main
compartments 1 O 1 3
26.2 Both intake and output of water are regulated 1016
26.3 Sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate levels are
tightly regulated 1019
Contents
26.4 Chemical buffers and respiratory regulation rapidly
minimize pH changes 1026
• XIX
26.5 Renal regulation is a long-term mechanism for controlling
acid-base balance 1029
26.6 Abnormalities of acid-base balance are classified as
metabolic or respiratory 1033
A CLOSER LOOK Sleuthing: Using Blood Values to Determine
the Cause of Acidosis or Alkalosis 1034
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
Balance 1035
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 1036
UNIT 5 Continuity
2 7 The Reproductive System 1 041
27.1 The male and female reproductive systems share
common features 1042
i:fii:ili ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1047
27.2 The testes are enclosed and protected by the
scrotum 1 048
27.3 Sperm travel from the testes to the body exterior through
a system of ducts 10 50
27.4 The penis is the copulatory organ of the male 1050
27.5 The male accessory glands produce the bulk of
semen 1052
1:fi”j:1fj PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1053
27.6 The male sexual response includes erection and
ejaculation 1053
27.7 Spermatogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to
formation of sperm 1054
27.8 Male reproductive function is regulated by the hypothalamic,
anterior pituitary, and testicular hormones 1059
i:ii:ili ANATOMY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1060
27.9 Immature eggs develop in follicles in the ovaries 1061
27.10 The female duct system includes the uterine tubes,
uterus, and vagina 1062
27.11 The external genitalia of the female include those
structures that lie external to the vagina 1067
27.12 The mammary glands produce milk 1068
xx Contents
1:ti,111 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM 1069
27.13 Oogenesis is the sequence of events that leads to the
formation of ova 1069
27.14 The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase and the
luteal phase 1073
27.15 Female reproductive function is regulated by the hypothalamic,
anterior pituitary, and ovarian hormones 1074
27.16 The female sexual response is more diverse and complex
than that of males 1078
I: ti;ilJ SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 1080
27.17 Sexually transmitted infections cause reproductive and
other disorders 1 080
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS of the Reproductive System 1081
SYSTEM CONNECTIONS 1085
2 8 Pregnancy and Human
Development 1091
28.1 Fertilization combines the sperm and egg chromosomes,
forming a zygote 1092
Focus FIGURE 28., Sperm Penetration and the Blocks to
Polyspermy 1 094
28.2 Embryonic development begins as the zygote undergoes
cleavage and forms a blastocyst en route to the
uterus 1097
28.3 Implantation occurs when the embryo burrows into the
uterine wall, triggering placenta formation 1098
28.4 Embryonic events include gastrula formation and tissue
differentiation, which are followed by the rapid growth of
the fetus 11 02
Focus FIGURE 28.2 Fetal and Newborn Circulation 1108
28.5 During pregnancy, the mother undergoes anatomical,
physiological, and metabolic changes 1112
28.6 The three stages of labor are dilation, expulsion, and
placental stages 1114
28.7 An infant’s extrauterine adjustments include taking the
first breath and closure of vascular shunts 1116
28.8 Lactation is milk secretion by the mammary glands in
response to prolactin 111 6
A CLOSER LOOK Contraception: To Be or Not To Be 1118
28.9 Assisted reproductive technology may help an infertile
the couple have offspring 1119
2 9 Heredity 1124
29.1 Genes are the vocabulary of genetics 112 5
29.2 Genetic variation results from independent assortment,
crossing over, and random fertilization 1126
29.3 Several patterns of inheritance have long been
known 1128
29.4 Environmental factors may influence or override gene
expression 1131
29.5 Factors other than nuclear DNA sequence can determine
inheritance 11 31
29.6 Genetic screening is used to detect genetic disorders 1133
Appendices
Answers Appendix A-1
A The Metric System A-18
B Functional Groups in Organic Molecules A-20
C The Amino Acids A-21
D Two Important Metabolic Pathways A-22
E Periodic Table of the Elements A-25
F Reference Values for Selected Blood and Urine
Studies A-26
Glossary G-1
Photo and Illustration Credits C-1
Index 1-1

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