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Human Anatomy 9th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: Frederic Martini, Robert Tallitsch, Judi Nath (Author)
  • File Size: 86 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 880 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 9th edition (January 3, 2017)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 013432076X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134320762

Download Human Anatomy 9th Edition PDF – eBook

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Description

  • Authors: Frederic Martini, Robert Tallitsch, Judi Nath (Author)
  • File Size: 86 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 880 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 9th edition (January 3, 2017)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 013432076X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134320762

Download Human Anatomy 9th Edition PDF – eBook

Contents
The Golgi Apparatus 40
Lysosomes 40
Peroxisomes 42
Membrane Flow 42
2.2 Intercellular Attachments 42
2.3 The Cell Life Cycle 42
Interphase 43
DNA Replication 43
Mitosis 44
SPOTLIGHTS
Membrane Permeability: Passive and Active Processes 32
Functions of the Golgi Apparatus 41
Mitosis 45
CLINICAL NOTE
Bodybuilding 36
Study Outline 46
Chapter Review 47
Related Clinical Terms 48
FOUNDATIONS
Tissues and Early
Embryology 49
CLINICAL C ASE | The Tallest in the School 49
3.1 Epithelial Tissue 50
Functions of Epithelial Tissue 50
Specializations of Epithelial Cells 50
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epithelium 52
Intercellular Connections 52
Attachment to the Basement Membrane 52
Epithelial Maintenance and Renewal 53
Classification of Epithelia 53
Squamous Epithelia 53
Cuboidal Epithelia 54
Columnar Epithelia 54
Pseudostratified and Transitional Epithelia 54
Glandular Epithelia 54
Type of Secretions 55
Structure of the Gland 56
Method of Secretion 58
3.2 Connective Tissues 59
Classification of Connective Tissues 59
Connective Tissue Proper 61
Cells of Connective Tissue Proper 61
Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper 62
Ground Substance of Connective Tissue Proper 63
Loose Connective Tissues 63
Dense Connective Tissues 65
1 | FOUNDATIONS
An Introduction to Anatomy 1
CLINICAL C ASE | Using Anatomy to Save a Life 1
1.1 Microscopic Anatomy 2
1.2 Gross Anatomy 2
1.3 Other Types of Anatomical Studies 2
1.4 Levels of Organization 5
1.5 An Introduction to Organ Systems 7
1.6 The Language of Anatomy 14
Superficial Anatomy 14
Anatomical Landmarks 14
Anatomical Regions 16
Anatomical Directions 16
Sectional Anatomy 18
Planes and Sections 18
Body Cavities 18
CLINICAL NOTE S
The Diagnosis of Disease 4
Disease, Pathology, and Diagnosis 7
Pericarditis and Peritonitis 19
Clinical Anatomy and Technology 20
Study Outline 22
Chapter Review 24
Related Clinical Terms 26
2 | FOUNDATIONS
The Cell 27
CLINICAL C ASE | Inheritance from Mom 27
2.1 Cellular Anatomy 28
The Plasma Membrane 30
Components of the Plasma Membrane 30
Membrane Permeability: Passive and Active Processes 30
Extensions of the Plasma Membrane: Microvilli 31
The Cytoplasm 31
The Cytosol 31
Organelles 34
Nonmembranous Organelles 34
The Cytoskeleton 34
Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella 36
Ribosomes 36
Membranous Organelles 36
Mitochondria 37
The Nucleus 37
The Endoplasmic Reticulum 39

xviii Contents
4.4 The Subcutaneous Layer 94
4.5 Accessory Structures 95
Hair Follicles and Hair 95
Hair Production 96
Follicle Structure 96
Functions of Hair 96
Types of Hairs 96
Hair Color 96
Growth and Replacement of Hair 96
Glands in the Skin 96
Sebaceous Glands 96
Sweat Glands 98
Control of Glandular Secretions 100
Other Integumentary Glands 100
Nails 102
4.6 Local Control of Integumentary Function 102
4.7 Aging and the Integumentary System 102
CLINIC AL NOTES
Skin Cancer 94
Acne and Seborrheic Dermatitis 98
Repairing Injuries to the Skin 101
Study Outline 103
Chapter Review 105
Related Clinical Terms 106
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Osseous Tissue and Bone
Structure 107
CLINIC AL CASE | Pushing Beyond Her Limits 107
5.1 Structure and Function of Bone 108
The Histological Organization of Mature Bone 108
The Matrix of Bone 108
The Cells of Mature Bone 108
Compact and Spongy Bone 109
Structural Differences between Compact and Spongy Bone 110
Functional Differences between Compact and Spongy Bone 111
The Periosteum and Endosteum 112
5.2 Bone Development and Growth 113
Intramembranous Ossification 113
Endochondral Ossification 113
Epiphyseal Closure 113
Increasing the Diameter of a Developing Bone 113
Blood and Nerve Supply to Bones 114
Factors Regulating Bone Growth 114
5.3 Bone Maintenance, Remodeling, and Repair 118
Remodeling of Bone 119
Injury and Repair 120
Aging and the Skeletal System 120
5.4 Anatomy of Skeletal Elements 120
Classification of Bone Shapes 121
Bone Markings 121
5.5 Integration with Other Systems 125
Fluid Connective Tissues 65
Supporting Connective Tissues 67
Cartilage 67
Bone 68
3.3 Membranes 70
Mucous Membranes 71
Serous Membranes 71
The Cutaneous Membrane (Skin) 72
Synovial Membranes 72
Embryonic Connective Tissues 72
3.4 The Connective Tissue Framework of the Body 73
3.5 Muscle Tissue 74
Skeletal Muscle Tissue 74
Cardiac Muscle Tissue 74
Smooth Muscle Tissue 74
3.6 Nervous Tissue 76
3.7 Tissues and Aging 76
3.8 Summary of Early Embryology 78
SPOTLIGHT
Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion 60
CLINIC AL NOTE S
Liposuction 63
Do Chondroitin and Glucosamine Help Arthritis Pain? 73
Cell Division, Tumor Formation, and Cancer 77
Study Outline 82
Chapter Review 84
Related Clinical Terms 85
4 | The Integumentary System 86
CLINIC AL CASE | Flesh-Eating Bacteria 86
4.1 Structure and Function of the Integumentary
System 87
4.2 The Epidermis 88
Layers of the Epidermis 88
Stratum Basale 88
Stratum Spinosum 89
Stratum Granulosum 89
Stratum Lucidum 90
Stratum Corneum 90
Thick and Thin Skin 90
Dermal Ridges 91
Skin Color 91
Dermal Blood Supply 91
Epidermal Pigments 91
4.3 The Dermis 92
Dermal Organization 92
Wrinkles, Stretch Marks, and Tension Lines 92
Other Dermal Components 93
Blood Supply to the Skin 93
Nerve Supply to the Skin 94

Contents xix
Cervical Vertebrae 160
The Atlas (C1) 162
The Axis (C2) 162
Vertebra Prominens (C7) 162
Thoracic Vertebrae 162
Lumbar Vertebrae 162
The Sacrum 162
The Coccyx 165
6.8 The Thoracic Cage 167
The Ribs 167
The Sternum 168
CLINICAL NOTES
Coccygeal Fractures 157
Spina Bifida 161
Kyphosis, Lordosis, and Scoliosis 166
Study Outline 168
Chapter Review 170
Related Clinical Terms 171
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Appendicular Division 172
CLINICAL C ASE | Double Jeopardy 172
7.1 The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 174
The Pectoral Girdle 174
The Clavicle 174
The Scapula 174
The Upper Limb 177
The Humerus 177
The Ulna 177
The Radius 177
The Carpal Bones 182
The Proximal Carpal Bones 182
The Distal Carpal Bones 182
The Metacarpals and Phalanges 182
7.2 The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 184
The Pelvic Girdle 185
The Hip Bones 185
The Pelvis 185
The Lower Limb 185
The Femur 190
The Patella 193
The Tibia 193
The Fibula 193
The Tarsal Bones 196
The Metatarsals and Phalanges 196
7.3 Individual Variation in the Skeletal System 197
CLINICAL NOTES
Scaphoid Fractures 184
Hip Dysplasia 198
Women and Sports Injuries 199
Study Outline 200
Chapter Review 201
Related Clinical Terms 202
SPOTLIGHT
Intramembranous Ossification 115
Endochondral Ossification 116
CLINICAL NOTES
Fractures and Their Repair 122
Osteoporosis 125
Congenital Disorders of the Skeleton 126
Examination of the Skeletal System 127
Study Outline 127
Chapter Review 129
Related Clinical Terms 130
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Axial Division 131
CLINICAL C ASE | The Last Lap 131
6.1 The Skull and Associated Bones 133
6.2 Sutures of the Skull 140
6.3 Bones of the Cranium 140
Occipital Bone 140
Parietal Bones 145
Frontal Bone 145
Temporal Bones 145
Sphenoid 148
Ethmoid 149
Cranial Fossae 149
6.4 Bones of the Face 150
The Maxillae 150
The Palatine Bones 150
The Nasal Bones 152
The Inferior Nasal Conchae 153
The Zygomatic Bones 153
The Lacrimal Bones 153
The Vomer 153
The Mandible 153
6.5 The Orbits, Nasal Complex, and the Hyoid
Bone 154
The Orbits 154
The Nasal Complex 154
The Paranasal Sinuses 154
The Hyoid Bone 156
6.6 The Skulls of Infants, Children, and Adults 156
6.7 The Vertebral Column 158
Spinal Curves 158
Vertebral Anatomy 158
The Vertebral Body 158
The Vertebral Arch 158
The Articular Processes 158
Vertebral Articulation 158
Vertebral Regions 158

xx Contents
SPOTLIGHT
Joint Motion 208
CLINICAL NOTES
Dislocation of a Synovial Joint 206
Problems with Intervertebral Discs 214
Ankylosing Spondylitis 215
Shoulder Injuries 219
Ankle Injuries 229
Study Outline 231
Chapter Review 233
Related Clinical Terms 234
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Skeletal Muscle Tissue and
Muscle Organization 235
CLINICAL C ASE | A Case of Asymmetrical Development 235
9.1 Functions of Skeletal Muscle 236
9.2 Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles 236
Gross Anatomy 236
Connective Tissue 236
Nerves and Blood Vessels 237
Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 238
Myofibrils and Myofilaments 238
Sarcomere Organization 241
9.3 Muscle Contraction 243
The Sliding Filament Theory 243
Neural Control of Muscle Fiber Contraction 243
Muscle Contraction: A Summary 243
9.4 Motor Units and Muscle Control 247
Muscle Tone 247
Muscle Hypertrophy 247
Muscle Atrophy 248
9.5 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 248
Distribution of Fast, Slow, and Intermediate Fibers 249
9.6 Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 249
Parallel Muscles 250
Convergent Muscles 251
Pennate Muscles 251
Circular Muscles 251
9.7 Muscle Terminology 251
Origins and Insertions 251
Actions 251
Names of Skeletal Muscles 252
9.8 Levers and Pulleys: A System Designed
for Movement 253
9.9 Aging and the Muscular System 253
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Joints 203
CLINICAL C ASE | Why Does My Knee Hurt So Much? 203
8.1 Joint Classification 204
Synarthroses (Immovable Joints) 204
Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable Joints) 204
Diarthroses (Freely Movable Synovial Joints) 204
Synovial Fluid 204
Accessory Structures 205
Strength versus Mobility 206
8.2 Articular Form and Function 207
Describing Dynamic Motion and the Structural Classification
of Synovial Joints 207
Types of Movements 207
Angular Motion 207
Rotation 207
Special Movements 207
8.3 The Temporomandibular Joint 212
8.4 Intervertebral Joints 212
Zygapophysial Joints 212
The Intervertebral Discs 213
Intervertebral Ligaments 215
Vertebral Movements 215
8.5 The Shoulder Complex 216
The Sternoclavicular Joint 216
The Shoulder Joint 217
Ligaments 217
Skeletal Muscles and Tendons 217
Bursae 217
8.6 The Elbow and Radio-ulnar Joints 219
The Elbow Joint 219
The Radio-ulnar Joints 221
8.7 The Joints of the Wrist and Hand 221
The Joints of the Wrist 221
Wrist Stability 221
The Joints of the Hand 221
8.8 The Hip Joint 222
The Articular Capsule 223
Hip Stabilization 223
8.9 The Knee Joint 224
The Articular Capsule 225
Supporting Ligaments 225
Locking of the Knee 225
8.10 The Joints of the Ankle and Foot 228
The Ankle Joint 228
The Joints of the Foot 228
8.11 Aging and Joints 231

Contents xxi
Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers 294
Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand 296
Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand 298
11.3 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Arm
and Forearm 301
11.4 Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb 303
Muscles That Move the Thigh 304
Muscles That Move the Leg 306
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes 309
Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot 309
Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot 315
11.5 Compartments and Sectional Anatomy of the Thigh
and Leg 319
SPOTLIGHT
Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle Function 284
CLINICAL NOTES
Sports Injuries 294
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 296
Calcaneal Tendon Rupture 316
Compartment Syndrome 319
Study Outline 321
Chapter Review 323
Related Clinical Terms 324
12 | Surface Anatomy and CrossSectional Anatomy 325
CLINICAL C ASE | Breathing Through Your Neck 325
12.1 Surface Anatomy: A Regional Approach 326
Head and Neck 326
Thorax 328
Abdomen 329
Shoulder and Arm 330
Arm, Forearm, and Wrist 331
Pelvis and Thigh 332
Leg and Foot 333
12.2 Cross-Sectional Anatomy 334
Cross Section at the Level of the Optic Chiasm 334
Cross Section at the Level of Vertebra C2 335
Cross Section at the Level of Vertebra T2 335
Cross Section at the Level of Vertebra T8 336
Cross Section at the Level of Vertebra T10 336
Cross Section at the Level of Vertebra T12 337
Cross Section at the Level of Vertebra L5 337
CLINICAL NOTES
Heart Sounds 328
Lumbar Puncture 328
Venipuncture 331
Femoral Artery 332
Breathing Through Your Neck 337
S POTLIGH T S
Sliding Filament Theory 244
Levers and Pulleys 254
CLINICAL NOTES
Fibromyalgia 238
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness 242
Rigor Mortis 243
Study Outline 256
Chapter Review 257
Related Clinical Terms 258
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Axial Musculature 259
CLINICAL C ASE | Waking with a Crooked Smile 259
10.1 The Four Groups of Axial Muscles 260
10.2 Muscles of the Head and Neck 262
Muscles of Facial Expression 262
Extra-ocular Muscles 264
Muscles of Mastication 266
Muscles of the Tongue 267
Muscles of the Pharynx 267
Anterior Muscles of the Neck 269
10.3 Muscles of the Vertebral Column 270
The Superficial Layer of the Intrinsic Back Muscles 270
The Intermediate Layer of the Intrinsic Back Muscles 270
The Deep Layer of the Intrinsic Back Muscles 270
Spinal Flexors 272
10.4 Oblique and Rectus Muscles 273
The Diaphragm 275
10.5 Muscles of the Perineal Region and the Pelvic
Diaphragm 277
CLINICAL NOTE
Botox 266
Study Outline 279
Chapter Review 280
Related Clinical Terms 281
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Appendicular Musculature 282
CLINICAL C ASE | Hamstrung 282
11.1 Factors Affecting Appendicular Muscle
Function 283
11.2 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb 286
Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle 286
Muscles That Move the Arm 288
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand 292

xxii Contents
14.4 Spinal Nerves 366
Peripheral Distribution of Spinal Nerves 367
14.5 Nerve Plexuses 367
The Cervical Plexus 368
The Brachial Plexus 374
The Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses 374
14.6 Reflexes 374
Classification of Reflexes 380
Spinal Reflexes 380
Higher Centers and Integration of Reflexes 380
SPOTLIGHT
The Cervical and Brachial Plexuses 370
The Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses 376
CLINICAL NOTES
Spinal Cord Injuries 366
Testing Sensory Nerves 372
Localized Peripheral Neuropathies 375
Lumbar Puncture and Spinal Anesthesia 375
Study Outline 382
Chapter Review 384
Related Clinical Terms 386
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Sensory and Motor Tracts of the
Spinal Cord 387
CLINICAL C ASE | Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 387
15.1 Organization and Patterns of Spinal Cord
Tracts 388
15.2 Sensory Tracts 388
The Posterior Columns 388
The Spinothalamic Tracts 394
The Spinocerebellar Tracts 394
15.3 Motor Tracts 394
The Corticospinal Tracts 394
The Corticobulbar Tracts 394
The Lateral and Anterior Corticospinal Tracts 394
The Motor Homunculus 396
The Subconscious Motor Pathways 396
The Vestibulospinal Tracts 396
The Tectospinal Tracts 396
The Medial Reticulospinal Tracts 396
The Rubrospinal Tracts 398
15.4 Levels of Somatic Motor Control 398
SPOTLIGHT
Organization of Spinal Cord Tracts 390
CLINICAL NOTE
Multiple Sclerosis 397
Study Outline 400
Chapter Review 401
Related Clinical Terms 402
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Nervous Tissue 338
CLINICAL C ASE | When Nerves Become Demyelinated 338
13.1 An Overview of the Nervous System 339
13.2 Cellular Organization in Nervous Tissue 340
13.3 Neuroglia 342
Neuroglia of the CNS 342
Astrocytes 342
Oligodendrocytes 342
Microglia 343
Ependymal Cells 343
Neuroglia of the PNS 343
Satellite Cells 343
Schwann Cells 344
13.4 Neurons 348
Neuron Classification 348
Structural Classification of Neurons 348
Functional Classification of Neurons 348
13.5 Regeneration of Nervous Tissue 350
13.6 The Nerve Impulse 350
13.7 Synaptic Communication 351
Chemical Synapses 351
Electrical Synapses 352
13.8 Neuron Organization and Processing 353
13.9 Anatomical Organization of the Nervous
System 354
SPOTLIGHT
Myelination 346
CLINICAL NOTE
Myasthenia Gravis 355
Study Outline 355
Chapter Review 357
Related Clinical Terms 359
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The Spinal Cord and Spinal
Nerves 360
CLINICAL C ASE | A Case of the Bends 360
14.1 Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 361
14.2 Spinal Meninges 361
The Dura Mater 361
The Arachnoid Mater 364
The Pia Mater 364
14.3 Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 364
Organization of Gray Matter 364
Organization of White Matter 364

Contents xxiii
The Trochlear Nerves (IV) 436
The Trigeminal Nerves (V) 437
The Abducens Nerves (VI) 438
The Facial Nerves (VII) 438
The Vestibulocochlear Nerves (VIII) 439
The Glossopharyngeal Nerves (IX) 440
The Vagus Nerves (X) 440
The Accessory Nerves (XI) 441
The Hypoglossal Nerves (XII) 442
CLINICAL NOTES
Traumatic Brain Injuries 411
Cerebellar Dysfunction 422
Microcephaly and Hydrocephalus 427
Damage to the Specialized Language Areas 428
Alzheimer’s Disease 432
Tic Douloureux 438
Bell’s Palsy 439
Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease 443
Cranial Reflexes 444
Study Outline 445
Chapter Review 447
Related Clinical Terms 448
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Autonomic Nervous System 449
CLINICAL C ASE | First Day of Anatomy Lab 449
17.1 A Comparison of the Somatic and Autonomic
Nervous Systems 450
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Subdivisions of the ANS 450
17.2 The Sympathetic Division 450
Sympathetic Chain Ganglia 450
Collateral Ganglia 451
Anatomy of the Collateral Ganglia 451
Adrenal Medullae 457
Effects of Sympathetic Stimulation 457
Sympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Release 458
Membrane Receptors and Sympathetic Function 458
A Summary of the Sympathetic Division 458
17.3 The Parasympathetic Division 459
Organization and Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Division 459
General Functions of the Parasympathetic Division 460
Parasympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Release 462
Plasma Membrane Receptors and Responses 462
Summary: Parasympathetic Division 462
17.4 Relationship between the Sympathetic and
Parasympathetic Divisions 462
Anatomy of Dual Innervation 462
Visceral Reflexes 463
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The Brain and Cranial Nerves 403
CLINICAL C ASE | A Neuroanatomist’s Stroke of Insight 403
16.1 An Introduction to the Organization
of the Brain 404
Embryology of the Brain 404
Major Regions and Landmarks 404
The Medulla Oblongata 404
The Pons 404
The Mesencephalon (Midbrain) 404
The Diencephalon 404
The Cerebellum 406
The Cerebrum 406
Gray Matter and White Matter Organization 406
The Ventricular System of the Brain 406
16.2 Protection and Support of the Brain 406
The Cranial Meninges 406
The Dura Mater 408
The Arachnoid Mater 409
The Pia Mater 409
The Blood Brain Barrier 409
Cerebrospinal Fluid 410
Formation of CSF 410
Circulation of CSF 410
The Blood Supply to the Brain 412
16.3 The Medulla Oblongata 413
16.4 The Pons 414
16.5 The Mesencephalon (Midbrain) 415
16.6 The Diencephalon 417
The Epithalamus 417
The Thalamus 417
Functions of Thalamic Nuclei 417
The Hypothalamus 418
Functions of the Hypothalamus 418
16.7 The Cerebellum 422
16.8 The Cerebrum 422
The Cerebral Hemispheres 424
The Cerebral Lobes 424
Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex 425
Association Areas 425
Higher-Order Functions 425
Integrative Centers of the Cerebral Cortex 427
The Specialized Language Areas in the Brain 427
The Prefrontal Cortex 428
Hemispheric Lateralization 428
The Central White Matter 428
The Basal Nuclei 429
Functions of the Basal Nuclei 429
The Limbic System 431
16.9 The Cranial Nerves 434
The Olfactory Nerves (I) 434
The Optic Nerves (II) 435
The Oculomotor Nerves (III) 436

xxiv Contents
The Vascular Layer 496
The Inner Layer (Retina) 496
The Chambers of the Eye 498
The Lens 499
Visual Pathways 499
Cortical Integration 500
The Brainstem and Visual Processing 500
CLINIC AL NOTE S
Hearing Loss 487
Disorders of the Eye 493
Nystagmus 499
Study Outline 501
Chapter Review 503
Related Clinical Terms 505
19 | The Endocrine System 506
CLINIC AL CASE | Why Am I So Cold and Tired? 506
19.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System 507
19.2 Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland 508
Hypophyseal Portal System 508
The Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland 508
The Posterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland 509
19.3 The Thyroid Gland 509
Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones 512
The C Thyrocytes of the Thyroid Gland 514
19.4 The Parathyroid Glands 515
19.5 The Thymus 516
19.6 The Adrenal Glands 516
The Adrenal Cortex 516
The Zona Glomerulosa 516
The Zona Fasciculata 516
The Zona Reticularis 516
The Adrenal Medulla 518
19.7 Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys and Heart 518
19.8 The Pancreas and Other Endocrine Tissues of the
Digestive System 518
The Pancreas 518
19.9 Endocrine Tissues of the Reproductive System 520
Testes 520
Ovaries 521
19.10 The Pineal Gland 521
19.11 Hormones and Aging 524
SPOTLIGHT
Neuroendocrine Integration: The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 510
CLINIC AL NOTES
Diabetes Insipidus 509
Diabetes Mellitus 520
Endocrine Disorders 522
Study Outline 524
Chapter Review 526
Related Clinical Terms 527
SPOTLIGHT T S
An Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System 452
A Review of the Sympathetic Nervous System 454
CLINIC AL NOTES
Sympathetic Function: Too Little, Too Much 459
Urinary Bladder Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury 465
Sexual Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury 466
Dysautonomia 466
Study Outline 466
Chapter Review 468
Related Clinical Terms 470
18 |
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
General and Special Senses 471
CLINIC AL CASE | Why Am I So Dizzy? 471
18.1 Receptors 472
Interpretation of Sensory Information 472
Central Processing and Adaptation 472
Sensory Limitations 473
18.2 The General Senses 473
Nociceptors 473
Thermoreceptors 474
Mechanoreceptors 474
Tactile Receptors 474
Baroreceptors 474
Proprioceptors 476
Chemoreceptors 476
18.3 Olfaction (Smell) 476
Olfactory Sensory Neurons 477
Olfactory Pathways 477
Olfactory Discrimination 477
18.4 Gustation (Taste) 478
Gustatory Epithelial Cells (Taste Receptors) 479
Gustatory Pathways 479
Gustatory Discrimination 479
18.5 Equilibrium and Hearing 480
The External Ear 480
The Middle Ear 480
The Auditory Ossicles 482
The Internal Ear 482
The Cochlear Duct and Hearing 482
The Vestibular Complex and Equilibrium 483
Hearing 485
The Cochlea 485
Sound Detection 486
Auditory Pathways 487
18.6 Vision 491
Accessory Structures of the Eye 491
Eyelids 491
The Lacrimal Apparatus 492
The Eye 492
The Fibrous Layer 495

Contents xxv
21.6 Coronary Blood Vessels 555
The Right Coronary Artery 555
The Left Coronary Artery 559
The Coronary Veins 559
21.7 The Coordination of Cardiac Contractions 559
21.8 The Cardiac Cycle 562
21.9 Autonomic Control of Heart Rate 562
SPOTLIGHT
The Conducting System and the Cardiac Cycle 560
CL I N I C A L NOT E S
Pericarditis, Myocarditis, and Epicarditis 552
Heart Murmurs 555
Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction 558
Study Outline 563
Chapter Review 565
Related Clinical Terms 566
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Vessels and Circulation 567
CL I N I C A L CA S E | In the Absence of Capillaries 567
22.1 Histological Organization of Blood Vessels 568
Distinguishing Arteries from Veins 568
Arteries 568
Elastic Arteries 568
Muscular Arteries 569
Arterioles 569
Capillaries 569
Capillary Beds 572
Veins 572
Venules 572
Medium-Sized Veins 572
Venous Valves 574
Large Veins 574
22.2 The Distribution of Blood 574
22.3 Blood Vessel Distribution 575
22.4 The Pulmonary Circuit 576
22.5 Systemic Arteries 576
The Aorta 579
The Ascending Aorta and the Aortic Arch 579
The Subclavian Arteries 579
The Carotid Arteries and the Blood Supply to the Brain 582
The Descending Aorta 585
The Thoracic Aorta 585
The Abdominal Aorta 585
Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 587
22.6 Systemic Veins 590
The Superior Vena Cava 590
Venous Return from the Cranium 590
Venous Return from the Upper Limb 593
The Formation of the Superior Vena Cava 594
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Blood 528
CL I N I C A L CA S E | A Surplus of WBCs 528
20.1 Functions and Composition of the Blood 529
Plasma 529
Differences between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid 529
The Plasma Proteins 531
20.2 Formed Elements 531
Red Blood Cells (RBCs) 531
Structure of RBCs 532
RBC Life Span and Circulation 532
RBCs and Hemoglobin 532
Blood Types 533
White Blood Cells (WBCs) 534
Granular Leukocytes 535
Neutrophils 535
Eosinophils 535
Basophils 535
Agranular Leukocytes 536
Monocytes 536
Lymphocytes 536
Platelets 536
20.3 Hemopoiesis 539
Erythropoiesis 539
Leukopoiesis 541
CL I N I C A L NOT E S
Disorders of the Blood, Blood Doping, and Treatments for
Blood Disorders 538
Study Outline 541
Chapter Review 543
Related Clinical Terms 544
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The Heart 545
CL I N I C A L CA S E | A Broken Heart 545
21.1 An Overview of the Cardiovascular System 546
21.2 The Pericardium 546
21.3 Structure of the Heart Wall 548
Cardiac Muscle Tissue 548
The Intercalated Discs 548
The Cardiac Skeleton 548
21.4 Orientation and Superficial Anatomy of the Heart 550
21.5 Internal Anatomy and Organization of the Heart 553
The Right Atrium 553
The Right Ventricle 554
The Left Atrium 554
The Left Ventricle 554
Structural Differences between the Right and Left Ventricles 554
The Structure and Function of Heart Valves 555

xxvi Contents
Study Outline 620
Chapter Review 621
Related Clinical Terms 623
24 | The Respiratory System 624
CLINI C AL CASE | How Long Should This Cough Last? 624
24.1 An Overview of the Respiratory System and
Respiratory Tract 625
Functions of the Respiratory System 626
The Respiratory Epithelium 626
24.2 The Upper Respiratory System 627
The Nose and Nasal Cavity 627
The Pharynx 629
The Nasopharynx 629
The Oropharynx 629
The Laryngopharynx 629
24.3 The Lower Respiratory System 630
The Larynx 630
Cartilages of the Larynx 630
Laryngeal Ligaments 631
The Laryngeal Musculature 631
24.4 The Trachea 632
24.5 The Main Bronchi 632
24.6 The Lungs 633
Lobes and Fissures of the Lungs 633
Lung Surfaces 633
The Main Bronchi 635
Branches of the Right Main Bronchus 635
Branches of the Left Main Bronchus 635
Branches of the Lobar Bronchi 635
The Bronchopulmonary Segments 635
The Bronchioles 635
Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli 638
The Alveolus and the Blood–Air Barrier 638
The Blood Supply to the Lungs 638
24.7 The Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes 642
24.8 Respiratory Muscles and Pulmonary
Ventilation 643
Respiratory Muscles 643
Respiratory Movements 643
24.9 Respiratory Changes at Birth 643
24.10 Respiratory Centers of the Brain 643
24.11 Aging and the Respiratory System 645
SPOTLIGHT
Respiratory Muscles and Pulmonary Ventilation 644
CLINIC AL NOTES
Cystic Fibrosis 627
Tracheal Blockage 638
Lung Cancer 638
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 641
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) 642
The Inferior Vena Cava 594
Veins Draining the Lower Limb 594
Veins Draining the Pelvis 594
Veins Draining the Abdomen 594
The Hepatic Portal System 594
22.7 Cardiovascular Changes at Birth 596
22.8 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 598
S POTLIGHT
The Structure of Blood Vessels 570
CLINIC AL NOTES
Arteriosclerosis 569
Repair of an Aortic Aneurysm 585
Congenital Cardiovascular Problems 598
Study Outline 599
Chapter Review 600
Related Clinical Terms 602
23 | The Lymphatic System 603
CLINIC AL CASE | Fighting a Zoonotic Disease 603
23.1 An Overview of the Lymphatic System 604
Functions of the Lymphatic System 604
23.2 Structure of Lymphatic Vessels 605
Lymphatic Capillaries 605
Larger Lymphatic Vessels 606
23.3 Major Lymph-Collecting Vessels 606
The Thoracic Duct 607
The Right Lymphatic Duct 607
23.4 Lymphocytes 607
Types of Lymphocytes 607
T Cells 608
B Cells 608
NK Cells 610
Lymphocytes and the Immune Response 610
Distribution and Life Span of Lymphocytes 610
Lymphocytopoiesis: Lymphocyte Production 610
23.5 Lymphatic Tissues 610
23.6 Lymphatic Organs 612
Lymph Nodes 612
Distribution of Lymphatic Tissues and Lymph Nodes 613
The Thymus 616
The Spleen 618
Surfaces of the Spleen 618
Histology of the Spleen 618
23.7 Aging and the Lymphatic System 619
SPOTLIGHT
Lymphocyte Formation and Immunity 609
CLINIC AL NOTES
Infected Lymphatic Nodules 611
HIV/AIDS 614
Lymphatic Vessels and Metastatic Cancer 617
Lymphoma 619

Contents xxvii
Histology of the Large Intestine 674
Regulation of the Large Intestine 675
25.8 Accessory Digestive Organs 675
The Liver 675
Anatomy of the Liver 677
Histology of the Liver 678
The Gallbladder 678
Histological Organization of the Gallbladder 679
The Pancreas 679
Histological Organization of the Pancreas 680
Pancreatic Enzymes 681
The Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion 681
25.9 Aging and the Digestive System 682
SPOTLIGHT
Anatomy of the Stomach 664
CL I N I C A L NOT E S
Ascites 655
Mumps 659
Esophagitis, GERD, and Hiatal Hernia 662
Endoscopy 665
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcers 668
Study Outline 682
Chapter Review 685
Related Clinical Terms 686
26 | The Urinary System 687
CL I N I C A L CA S E | This Too Shall Pass 687
26.1 The Kidneys 688
Superficial Anatomy of the Kidney 688
Sectional Anatomy of the Kidney 689
The Blood Supply to the Kidneys 689
Innervation of the Kidneys 690
Histology of the Kidney 690
The Nephron and Collecting System 690
The Renal Corpuscle 692
The Proximal Convoluted Tubule 693
The Nephron Loop 694
The Distal Convoluted Tubule 697
The Collecting System 697
26.2 Structures for Urine Transport, Storage, and
Elimination 697
The Ureters 697
Histology of the Ureters 699
The Urinary Bladder 699
Histology of the Urinary Bladder 701
The Urethra 701
Histology of the Urethra 702
Urinary Reflexes: Urine Storage and Urine Voiding 702
Urine Storage Reflex 702
Urine Voiding Reflex 702
26.3 Aging and the Urinary System 702
Study Outline 646
Chapter Review 647
Related Clinical Terms 649
25 | The Digestive System 650
CL I N I C A L CA S E | An Unusual Transplant 650
25.1 An Overview of the Digestive System 651
Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract 651
The Mucosa 651
The Submucosa 651
The Muscular Layer 651
The Serosa 652
Muscular Layers and the Movement of Digestive
Materials 652
Peristalsis and Segmentation 653
The Peritoneum 654
Mesenteries 655
25.2 The Oral Cavity 655
Anatomy of the Oral Cavity 655
The Tongue 657
Salivary Glands 658
Regulation of Salivary Secretion 658
The Teeth 659
25.3 The Pharynx 661
The Swallowing Process 661
25.4 The Esophagus 661
Histology of the Esophageal Wall 663
25.5 The Stomach 663
Anatomy of the Stomach 663
Blood Supply to the Stomach 663
Musculature of the Stomach 666
Histology of the Stomach 666
Gastric Secretory Cells 666
Regulation of Gastric Activity 668
25.6 The Small Intestine 668
Regions of the Small Intestine 669
The Duodenum 669
The Jejunum 669
The Ileum 669
Support of the Small Intestine 669
Histology of the Small Intestine 669
The Intestinal Epithelium 671
Intestinal Glands 671
The Lamina Propria 671
Regional Specializations 672
Regulation of the Small Intestine 672
25.7 The Large Intestine 672
The Cecum and Appendix 672
The Colon 672
Regions of the Colon 674
The Rectum 674

xxviii Contents
SPOTLIGHT
The Renal Corpuscle 696
CL I N I C A L NOT E S
Treatment of Renal Failure 699
Transitional Cell Carcinoma 702
Urinary Tract Infections 703
Study Outline 703
Chapter Review 705
Related Clinical Terms 706
27 | The Reproductive System 707
CL I N I C A L CA S E | A Serious Game of Twister 707
27.1 Organization of the Reproductive System 708
27.2 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System 708
The Testes 708
Descent of the Testes 708
The Spermatic Cords 708
Structure of the Testes 711
Histology of the Testes 711
Spermatogenesis and Meiosis 711
Spermiogenesis 712
Nurse Cells 712
Anatomy of a Sperm 714
The Male Reproductive Tract 714
The Epididymis 714
The Ductus Deferens 716
The Urethra 716
The Accessory Glands 716
The Seminal Glands 716
The Prostate 716
The Bulbo-urethral Glands 716
Semen 719
The Penis 719
27.3 Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System 719
The Ovaries 721
The Ovarian Cycle and Oogenesis 721
The Uterine Tubes 724
Histology of the Uterine Tube 725
The Uterus 725
Suspensory Ligaments of the Uterus 725
Gross Anatomy of the Uterus 725
The Uterine Wall 726
Blood Supply to the Uterus 727
Histology of the Uterus 727
The Uterine Cycle 727
The Vagina 730
Histology of the Vagina 730
The External Genitalia 730
The Breasts 730
Development of the Mammary Glands During Pregnancy 732
27.4 Aging and the Reproductive System 733
Menopause 733
The Male Climacteric 733
CL I N I C A L NOT E S
Testicular Cancer 716
Ovarian Cancer 721
Uterine Fibroids and Cancers 728
Breast Cancer 733
Study Outline 734
Chapter Review 736
Related Clinical Terms 738
28 |
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Embryology and Human
Development 739
CL I N I C A L CA S E | The Least-Alike Twins 739
28.1 An Overview of Development 740
28.2 Fertilization 740
The Oocyte at Ovulation 740
Pronucleus Formation and Amphimixis 740
28.3 Prenatal Development 742
The First Trimester 742
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation 742
Implantation 743
Placentation 745
Embryogenesis 746
The Second and Third Trimesters 746
28.4 Labor and Delivery 752
Stages of Labor 752
The Dilation Stage 752
The Expulsion Stage 752
The Placental Stage 754
Premature Labor 754
28.5 The Neonatal Period 755
28.6 Embryology of Organ Systems 756
CL I N I C A L NOT E S
Congenital Malformations 742
Teratogens and Abnormal Development 744
Common Complications of Parturition 755
Study Outline 788
Chapter Review 789
Related Clinical Terms 790
Answers to Concept Checks, Chapter Reviews, and Clinical Case
Wrap-Ups 791
Appendices 808
Foreign Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms 809
Eponyms in Common Use 810
Glossary 812
Credits 826
Index 830

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