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Governing Texas 5th Edition PDF – EBook


Download Governing Texas 5th Edition PDF – EBook

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Download Governing Texas 5th Edition PDF – EBook

Preface XVI
Acknowledgments XXIII
1 • The Political Culture, People, and Economy of Texas 3
Texas Political Culture 5
One-Party Dominance 5
Provincialism 6
Business Dominance 6
The Land 7
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Confederate Monuments in Texas 8
The Gulf Coastal Plains 10
The Interior Lowlands 11
The Great Plains 12
The Basin and Range Province 12
Economic Change in Texas 12
Cotton 12
Cattle 13
Oil 15
High-Tech Industry 17
NAFTA, USMCA, and the International Economy 18
The Military in Texas 20
Who Are Texans? 21
Whites 22
Latinos 23
WHO ARE TEXANS? How Is the Texas Population
Changing? 25
African Americans 26
Asian Americans 29
Age 29
Poverty and Wealth 29
Urbanization 29
Urban Political Life 30
TEXAS AND THE NATION How Does Texas’s Population
Compare to Other Major States’? 33
Political Culture and the Future of Texas 35
Study Guide 37
2 • The Texas Constitution 41
The Role of a State Constitution 43
The Texas Constitutions: 1836–1876 45
The Texas Founding 45
The Constitution of the Republic of Texas, 1836 47
The Texas State Constitution of 1845 50
The Constitution of 1861: Texas Joins the Confederacy 52
The Constitution of 1866: Texas Rejoins the Union 53
The Reconstruction Constitution of 1869 54
The Constitution of 1876 55
The Constitution of Texas Today 59
The Preamble 60
Article 1: Bill of Rights 60
Article 2: The Powers of Government 62
Article 3: Legislative Department 63
Article 4: Executive Department 63
Article 5: Judicial Department 64
Article 6: Suffrage 64
Article 7: Education 64
Article 8: Taxation and Revenue 66
Articles 9 and 11: Local Government 66
Articles 10, 12, 13, and 14 66
TEXAS AND THE NATION Which State Has the Longest
Constitution? 67
Article 15: Impeachment 68
Article 16: General Provisions 68
Article 17: Amending the Constitution 69
Recent Attempts to Rewrite the Texas Constitution 69
Recent Amendments 69
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Votes in Texas Elections
Amending the Constitution? 71
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Prohibiting an Income Tax through the
Constitution 74
The Constitution and the Future of Texas 76
Study Guide 77
3 • Texas in the Federal System 81
What Is Federalism? 83
The Pros and Cons of Federalism 83
Federalism in the Constitution 85
State Power under the Articles of Confederation 86
The Federal System under the Constitution 87
Early Constitutional Debates over Federalism 89
The Civil War Amendments and Increased National Power
How Does Federalism Work? 92
Dual Federalism 92
Cooperative Federalism 94
TEXAS AND THE NATION Federal Funds to Texas versus
Other States 95
Coercive Federalism 96
Independent State Grounds 98
WHO ARE TEXANS? How Do Federal Funds Flow to
Texas? 99
Current Issues Involving Federalism 100
State Regulation of Voting 100
The Affordable Care Act 101
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Federal Oversight of Texas Voting Rights 102
Immigration 105
The Coronavirus, Texas, and Federalism 107
Federalism and the Future of Texas 109
Study Guide 110
4 • Political Parties 115
The Roles and Structure of Political Parties in Texas 117
Texas Party Politics 118
Public Attitudes about Parties 119
The Contemporary Republican Party in Texas 120
The Contemporary Democratic Party in Texas 122
Democratic and Republican Party Organization 123
Third Parties in Texas 125
TEXAS AND THE NATION How Republican Is Texas? 127
The Tea Party Movement in Texas 129
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Which Party Reflects Your Political Beliefs?
Parties and Digital Media 132
Texas’s History as a One-Party State 132
WHO ARE TEXANS? When Did Texas Become
Republican? 133
The Era of Conservative Democrats 135
The Growth of the Republican Party 135
The Disappearance of Conservative Democrats 137
Texas Party Politics Today 139
Party Unity and Disunity 139
Urban, Rural, and Suburban Influences on Partisanship 140
African Americans in Texas Political Parties 143
Latinos in Texas Political Parties 144
Political Parties and the Future of Texas 146
Study Guide 148
5 • Campaigns and Elections 151
Features of Elections in Texas 153
Primary Elections 153
General Elections 155
Special Elections 156
Participation in Texas Elections 156
Who Can Vote? 156
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Voter Identification Laws 162
Redistricting: Where Do People Vote? 164
Turnout: Who Votes? 165
The Importance of the Republican Primary 168
Campaigns 169
Candidates: Who Runs? 169
Running as an Independent 169
Money 170
Interest Groups 171
Parties 172
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Votes in Texas Statewide
Elections? 173
Strategy 174
TEXAS AND THE NATION How Did Texans Vote in 2020?
Public Opinion and Campaigns 176
Media 176
Important Issues in Recent Texas Campaigns 177
Campaigns, Elections, and the Future of Texas 180
Study Guide 181
6 • Interest Groups and Lobbying 185
Interest Groups in the Political Process 187
Resources and Strategies of Interest Groups 187
Interest Groups and Democracy 188
Interest Groups and Policy Makers 190
Types of Interest Groups and Lobbyists 192
Getting Access to Policy Makers 193
TEXAS AND THE NATION Registered Lobbyists: How Does
Texas Compare? 195
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Lobbying Reform 198
Who Represents Ordinary Texans? 201
How Interest Groups Impact Elections 201
Getting Out the Vote 202
Defeating Opponents 203
WHO ARE TEXANS? Which Interest Groups Contribute the
Most? 205
Individuals as Lobbyists 208
Interest Groups and the Future of Texas 210
Study Guide 211
7 • The Legislature 215
Structure of the Texas Legislature 217
Bicameralism 217
Sessions of the Legislature 218
How Much Do Legislators Get Paid? 220
Representation in the Texas Legislature 220
Redistricting 222
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Are the Members of the Texas
Legislature? 223
Power and Partisanship in the Redistricting Battle 224
Powers of the Legislature 225
Legislative Powers 225
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Your Role in the Legislature 226
Nonlegislative Powers 228
How a Bill Becomes a Law in Texas 229
Introduction 230
Referral 230
Committee Action 230
Floor Action 231
Conference Committee 235
The Governor 236
TEXAS AND THE NATION How Representative Is the
Texas Legislature Compared with Other States? 237
Additional Players in the Legislative Process 238
Power and Partisanship in the Legislature 241
Leadership 241
Centralizing Power: Sources of the Leadership’s Power 242
Partisan Voting in the Texas Legislature 245
The Legislature and the Future of Texas 247
Study Guide 249
8 • The Executive Branch 253
The Governor 255
Qualifications 256
TEXAS AND THE NATION Elected or Appointed Executive
Officials? 257
Election and Term of Office 258
Campaigns 259
Removal of a Governor 260
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Elected Governor Greg Abbott
in 2018? 261
Succession 262
Compensation 262
Staff 262
Executive Powers of the Governor 263
Legislative Powers of the Governor 268
Judicial Powers of the Governor 269
The Plural Executive 271
Lieutenant Governor 273
Attorney General 275
Commissioner of the General Land Office 276
Agriculture Commissioner 277
Comptroller of Public Accounts 278
Secretary of State 279
The Plural Executive and the Governor 279
Boards, Commissions, and Regulatory Agencies 280
Multimember Appointed Boards 280
Appointed Single Executives 281
Multimember Elected Boards 281
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Plural versus Single Executive 282
Making Agencies Accountable 285
The Executive in the Age of COVID-19 286
The Executive Branch and the Future of Texas 289
Study Guide 291
9 • The Judiciary 295
The Legal Process 297
Civil Law 297
Criminal Law 298
Court Structure 301
Judicial Politics 307
Initial Appointment of Judges by the Governor 307
Judicial Elections Become Highly Partisan 308
Proposed Reforms of the Texas Judiciary 309
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Judicial Elections and Straight-Ticket Voting
TEXAS AND THE NATION Comparing How Texas Selects
Its Judges to the Rest of the Country 315
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Are Texas’s Judges? 319
Issues in the Texas Court System Today 321
Having Experienced Judges and Funding the Courts 321
Civil Cases and Tort Reform 322
The Regulation of the Legal Profession 323
Judicial Conduct 324
The Courts and Coronavirus 326
The Judiciary and the Future of Texas 327
Study Guide 329
10 • Local Government 333
County Government in Texas 335
What Are the Functions of County Government? 335
Numerous County Offices: Checks and Balances or Built-In
Problems? 337
The Challenges of County Government 338
City Government in Texas 343
General-Law versus Home-Rule Cities 343
Local Government and the Coronavirus 346
CITIZEN’S GUIDE State Preemption of Local Laws 348
Forms of Government in Texas Cities 350
Tales of Five Cities 351
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Governs Texas’s Cities? 355
Special Purpose Districts 357
Types of Special Purpose Districts 357
School Districts 358
Nonschool Special Purpose Districts 358
TEXAS AND THE NATION How Extensive Are Texas’s
Local Governments? 359
Problems with Special Purpose Districts 361
Councils of Government (COGs) 363
Financial Issues Facing Local Government 364
Capital Appreciation Bonds 364
Local Government Pensions 365
Local Government and the Future of Texas 367
Study Guide 369
11 • Public Finance 373
What Is the Budget? 375
Spending and Revenue in Texas 377
Trends in State Spending 378
Revenue in Texas 378
TEXAS AND THE NATION Do Democratic or Republican
States Pay More Taxes? 379
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Pays the Most State Taxes in
Texas? 381
The Question of the Income Tax in Texas 383
CITIZEN’S GUIDE The Texas Tax System 384
Other State Revenue 386
State Funds 387
The Texas Constitution and the Budget 390
The Budgetary Process 394
Estimation and Planning 395
The Legislative Process 397
The Challenge of Budgeting in Texas 399
The Budget Process Today 401
Public Finance and the Future of Texas 401
Study Guide 403
12 • Public Policy 407
The Policy-Making Process 409
Rationality in Policy Making 410
Education Policy 412
The Roots of Education Policy in Texas 412
Desegregation 414
Equity in Funding 415
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Attends Public School in Texas?
Educational Excellence and Accountability in Texas 418
Education Policy in a New Era 420
Welfare Policy 424
Poverty in Texas 424
Welfare in Texas, 1935–1996 426
The Idea of Dependency and Welfare Reform in the 1990s
Evaluating Welfare Reforms 429
Medicaid and Health Care Policy 431
Medicaid 431
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Abortion Policy in Texas 434
Broader Health Care Issues in Texas 436
The Affordable Care Act 436
TEXAS AND THE NATION What Are the Trade-Offs in
Texas Public Policy? 437
Public Policy and the Future of Texas 440
Study Guide 442
13 • Crime, Corrections, and Public Safety 447
Policing in Texas 449
Police Departments 449
Texas Commission on Law Enforcement 450
Controversies Surrounding Policing in Texas 450
Categorizing Crime in Texas 454
Felonies and Misdemeanors 454
Punishing Crime 456
The Criminal Justice Process 457
Arraignment and Posting Bail 457
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Bail Reform in Texas 458
Grand Jury Indictment 460
Pretrial Hearings 460
Plea Bargaining 460
Trial and Sentencing 461
Does the Criminal Justice System Create Criminals? 461
Crime and Texas District Attorneys 463
Crime and Criminal Defense 464
Crime, Corrections, and the Texas Prison System 465
History of the Prison System 466
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Is in Prison in Texas? 467
The Prison System Today 468
The Death Penalty 471
TEXAS AND THE NATION How Does Criminal Justice in
Texas Compare with Other States? 473
Self-Defense and Concealed/Open Carry of Handguns 475
The Integrity of the Texas Criminal Justice System 476
How Fair Is the Criminal Justice System? 476
Reforms 478
COVID-19 and Criminal Justice in Texas 480
Criminal Justice and the Future of Texas 481
Study Guide 482
14 • Building the Future: Public Policies for a Changing Texas 487
Transportation Policy in Texas 489
Texas Roads and Highways 489
The Problem with Texas Roads and Highways 490
Highways and the Future 492
Public Transit in Texas 495
Demographic Change in Texas 497
Who Are Texas’s Immigrants? 497
Immigration Policy in Texas 499
WHO ARE TEXANS? Who Is Eligible for DACA? 505
Higher Education Policy in Texas 507
CITIZEN’S GUIDE Higher Education and Immigration 508
Building a System of Higher Education in Texas 511
Financing Higher Education 513
The Coronavirus Challenge to Higher Education 514
TEXAS AND THE NATION Higher Education Spending and
Outcomes 515
Setting Goals for the Future: 60x30TX 516
Water Policy in Texas 518
Water Law in Texas 519
Planning Authorities and Water Policy 520
Facing Texas’s Future 523
Study Guide 525
Appendix A1
Endnotes A21
Answer Key A45
Credits A47
Glossary / Index A49

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