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General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 7th Edition PDF – eBook

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  • Authors: by H. Stephen Stoker (Author)
  • File Size: 80 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1242 pages
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning; 7th edition (January 1, 2015)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1285853911
  • ISBN-13: 978-1285853918

Download General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 7th Edition PDF – eBook

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Description

  • Authors: by H. Stephen Stoker (Author)
  • File Size: 80 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1242 pages
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning; 7th edition (January 1, 2015)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1285853911
  • ISBN-13: 978-1285853918

Download General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 7th Edition PDF – eBook

Contents

Preface xi
Part I General Chemistry
1 Basic Concepts About Matter 1
1-1 Chemistry: The Study of Matter 1
1-2 Physical States of Matter 2
1-3 Properties of Matter 3
1-4 Changes in Matter 6
1-5 Pure Substances and Mixtures 7
Chemistry at a Glance Use of the Terms Physical and
Chemical 8
1-6 Elements and Compounds 10
Chemistry at a Glance Classes of Matter 11
1-7 Discovery and Abundance of the Elements 13
1-8 Names and Chemical Symbols of the Elements 15
1-9 Atoms and Molecules 18
1-10 Chemical Formulas 20
Chemical Connections
1-A Carbon Monoxide: A Substance with Both “Good” and
“Bad” Properties 5
1-B Elemental Composition of the Human Body 14
2 Measurements in Chemistry 24
2-1 Measurement Systems 24
2-2 Metric System Units 25
2-3 Exact and Inexact Numbers 29
2-4 Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant
Figures 30
Chemistry at a Glance Significant Figures 32
2-5 Significant Figures and Mathematical Operations 33
2-6 Scientific Notation 36
2-7 Conversion Factors 40
Chemistry at a Glance Conversion Factors 42
2-8 Dimensional Analysis 43
2-9 Density 45
2-10 Temperature Scales 48
Chemical Connections
2-A Body Density and Percent Body Fat 47
2-B Normal Human Body Temperature 50
3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 53
3-1 Internal Structure of an Atom 53
3-2 Atomic Number and Mass Number 55
3-3 Isotopes and Atomic Masses 58
CHEMISTRY AT A GLANCE Atomic Structure 61
3-4 The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table 62
3-5 Metals and Nonmetals 65
3-6 Electron Arrangements Within Atoms 67
Chemistry at a Glance Shell–Subshell–Orbital
Interrelationships 71
3-7 Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams 72
3-8 The Electronic Basis for the Periodic Law and the
Periodic Table 78
3-9 Classification of the Elements 80
Chemistry at a Glance Element Classification Schemes and
the Periodic Table 83
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS
3-A Dietary Minerals and the Human Body 68
3-B Electrons in Excited States 77
3-C Iron: The Most Abundant Transition Element in the
Human Body 82
4 Chemical Bonding: The Ionic Bond Model 85
4-1 Chemical Bonds 85
4-2 Valence Electrons and Lewis Symbols 87
4-3 The Octet Rule 90
4-4 The Ionic Bond Model 91
4-5 The Sign and Magnitude of Ionic Charge 93
4-6 Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds 95
4-7 Chemical Formulas for Ionic Compounds 97
4-8 The Structure of Ionic Compounds 98
Chemistry at a Glance Ionic Bonds and Ionic
Compounds 100
Contents v
4-9 Recognizing and Naming Binary Ionic
Compounds 102
4-10 Polyatomic Ions 106
4-11 Chemical Formulas and Names for Ionic Compounds
Containing Polyatomic Ions 108
Chemistry at a Glance Nomenclature of Ionic
Compounds 110
Chemical Connections
4-A Fresh Water, Seawater, Hard Water, and Soft Water: A
Matter of Ions 101
4-B Tooth Enamel: A Combination of Monatomic and
Polyatomic Ions 108
5 Chemical Bonding: The Covalent Bond
Model 112
5-1 The Covalent Bond Model 112
5-2 Lewis Structures for Molecular Compounds 114
5-3 Single, Double, and Triple Covalent Bonds 117
5-4 Valence Electrons and Number of Covalent Bonds
Formed 118
5-5 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 120
5-6 Systematic Procedures for Drawing Lewis
Structures 122
5-7 Bonding in Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
Present 126
5-8 Molecular Geometry 127
Chemistry at a Glance The Geometry of Molecules 130
5-9 Electronegativity 132
5-10 Bond Polarity 134
Chemistry at a Glance Covalent Bonds and Molecular
Compounds 138
5-11 Molecular Polarity 139
5-12 Recognizing and Naming Binary Molecular
Compounds 142
Chemical Connections
5-A Nitric Oxide: A Molecule Whose Bonding Does Not Follow
“The Rules” 125
5-B The Chemical Sense of Smell 131
6 Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles,
and Chemical Equations 145
6-1 Formula Masses 146
6-2 The Mole: A Counting Unit for Chemists 147
6-3 The Mass of a Mole 149
6-4 Chemical Formulas and the Mole Concept 152
6-5 The Mole and Chemical Calculations 154
6-6 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 157
6-7 Chemical Equations and the Mole Concept 162
Chemistry at a Glance Relationships Involving the Mole
Concept 163
6-8 Chemical Calculations Using Chemical Equations 164
6-9 Yields: Theoretical, Actual, and Percent 169
Chemical Connections
6-A Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution: A Case of Incomplete
Combustion 165
6-B Chemical Reactions on an Industrial Scale: Sulfuric
Acid 168
7 Gases, Liquids, and Solids 172
7-1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 172
7-2 Kinetic Molecular Theory and Physical States 174
Chemistry at a Glance Kinetic Molecular Theory and the
States of Matter 177
7-3 Gas Law Variables 178
7-4 Boyle’s Law: A Pressure-Volume Relationship 180
7-5 Charles’s Law: A Temperature–Volume
Relationship 182
7-6 The Combined Gas Law 184
7-7 The Ideal Gas Law 185
7-8 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 186
Chemistry at a Glance The Gas Laws 188
7-9 Changes of State 189
7-10 Evaporation of Liquids 190
7-11 Vapor Pressure of Liquids 191
7-12 Boiling and Boiling Point 194
7-13 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids 196
Chemistry at a Glance Intermolecular Forces in
Liquids 201
Chemical Connections
7-A The Importance of Gas Densities 178
7-B Blood Pressure and the Sodium Ion/Potassium Ion
Ratio 193
7-C Hydrogen Bonding and the Density of Water 199
8 Solutions 203
8-1 Characteristics of Solutions 203
8-2 Solubility 205
8-3 Solution Formation 208
8-4 Solubility Rules 209
8-5 Percent Concentration Units 212
8-6 Molarity Concentration Unit 218
Chemistry at a Glance Specifying Solution
Concentrations 221
8-7 Dilution 222
8-8 Colloidal Dispersions and Suspensions 223
8-9 Colligative Properties of Solutions 224
8-10 Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure 228
Chemistry at a Glance Summary of Colligative Property
Terminology 233
Chemical Connections
8-A Factors Affecting Gas Solubility 206
8-B Solubility of Vitamins 211
8-C Controlled-Release Drugs: Regulating Concentration, Rate,
and Location of Release 220
vi Contents
9 Chemical Reactions 235
9-1 Types of Chemical Reactions 235
Chemistry at a Glance Types of Chemical Reactions 240
9-2 Redox and Nonredox Chemical Reactions 240
9-3 Terminology Associated with Redox Processes 243
9-4 Collision Theory and Chemical Reactions 245
9-5 Exothermic and Endothermic
Chemical Reactions 247
9-6 Factors That Influence Chemical Reaction Rates 249
Chemistry at a Glance Factors That Increase Chemical
Reaction Rates 253
9-7 Chemical Equilibrium 253
9-8 Equilibrium Constants 255
9-9 Altering Equilibrium Conditions:
Le Châtelier’s Principle 259
Chemistry at a Glance Le Châtelier’s Principle and Altered
Equilibrium Conditions 263
Chemical Connections
9-A Combustion Reactions, Carbon Dioxide, and Global
Warming 238
9-B Changes in Human Body Temperature and Chemical
Reaction Rates 252
9-C Stratospheric Ozone: An Equilibrium Situation 256
10 Acids, Bases, and Salts 265
10-1 Arrhenius Acid–Base Theory 265
10-2 Brønsted–Lowry Acid–Base Theory 267
Chemistry at a Glance Acid-Base Definitions 271
10-3 Mono-, Di-, and Triprotic Acids 271
10-4 Strengths of Acids and Bases 273
10-5 Ionization Constants for Acids and Bases 274
10-6 Salts 276
10-7 Acid–Base Neutralization Chemical Reactions 277
10-8 Self-Ionization of Water 280
10-9 The pH Concept 282
Chemistry at a Glance Acids and Acidic Solutions 287
10-10 The pKa Method for Expressing Acid Strength 288
10-11 The pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions 289
10-12 Buffers 291
Chemistry at a glance Buffer Systems 295
10-13 The Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation 297
10-14 Electrolytes 298
10-15 Equivalents and Milliequivalents of Electrolytes 299
10-16 Acid–Base Titrations 303
Chemical Connections
10-A Excessive Acidity Within the Stomach: Antacids and
Acid Inhibitors 279
10-B pH Values for Acid Rain 286
10-C Composition and Characteristics of Blood
Plasma 292
10-D Acidosis and Alkalosis 296
10-E Electrolytes and Body Fluids 302
11 Nuclear Chemistry 306
11-1 Stable and Unstable Nuclides 306
11-2 The Nature of Radioactive Emissions 308
11-3 Equations for Radioactive Decay 310
11-4 Rate of Radioactive Decay 313
Chemistry At a glance Radioactive Decay 314
11-5 Transmutation and Bombardment Reactions 316
11-6 Radioactive Decay Series 318
11-7 Detection of Radiation 319
11-8 Chemical Effects of Radiation 320
11-9 Biochemical Effects of Radiation 323
11-10 Sources of Radiation Exposure 326
11-11 Nuclear Medicine 329
11-12 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 333
Chemistry At a glance Characteristics of Nuclear
Reactions 336
11-13 Nuclear and Chemical Reactions Compared 337
Chemical Connections
11-A Preserving Food Through Food Irradiation 324
11-B The Indoor Radon-222 Problem 327
11-C Technetium-99m: The “Workhorse” of Nuclear
Medicine 331
Part II Organic Chemistry
12 Saturated Hydrocarbons 339
12-1 Organic and Inorganic Compounds 339
12-2 Bonding Characteristics of the Carbon Atom 340
12-3 Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Derivatives 341
12-4 Alkanes: Acyclic Saturated Hydrocarbons 342
12-5 Structural Formulas 345
12-6 Alkane Isomerism 346
12-7 Conformations of Alkanes 348
12-8 IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkanes 350
12-9 Line-Angle Structural Formulas for Alkanes 357
Chemistry at a Glance Structural Representations for Alkane
Molecules 358
12-10 Classification of Carbon Atoms 359
12-11 Branched-Chain Alkyl Groups 361
Contents vii
12-12 Cycloalkanes 363
12-13 IUPAC Nomenclature for Cycloalkanes 365
12-14 Isomerism in Cycloalkanes 366
12-15 Sources of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 368
12-16 Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 369
12-17 Chemical Properties of Alkanes and
Cycloalkanes 371
Chemistry at a Glance Properties of Alkanes and
Cycloalkanes 374
12-18 Halogenated Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 375
Chemical connections ns
12-A The Occurrence of Methane 344
12-B The Physiological Effects of Alkanes 372
12-C Chlorofluorocarbons and the Ozone Layer 378
13 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 380
13-1 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 380
13-2 Characteristics of Alkenes and Cycloalkenes 381
13-3 Nomenclature for Alkenes and Cycloalkenes 383
13-4 Line-Angle Structural Formulas for Alkenes 387
13-5 Constitutional Isomerism in Alkenes 387
13-6 Cis–Trans Isomerism in Alkenes 390
13-7 Naturally Occurring Alkenes 393
13-8 Physical Properties of Alkenes and Cycloalkenes 396
13-9 Preparation of Alkenes 397
13-10 Chemical Reactions of Alkenes 397
13-11 Polymerization of Alkenes: Addition Polymers 403
Chemistry at a glance Chemical Reactions of Alkenes 407
13-12 Alkynes 407
Chemistry at a glance IUPAC Nomenclature for Alkanes,
Alkenes, and Alkynes 409
13-13 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 410
13-14 Nomenclature for Aromatic Hydrocarbons 412
13-15 Properties of and Sources for Aromatic
Hydrocarbons 415
13-16 Fused-Ring Aromatic Hydrocarbons 417
CHEMISTRY AT A GLANCE Types of Unsaturated
Hydrocarbons 417
Chemical Connections
13-A Ethene: A Plant Hormone and High-Volume Industrial
Chemical 386
13-B Cis-Trans Isomerism and Vision 392
13-C Carotenoids: A Source of Color 395
14 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 419
14-1 Bonding Characteristics of Oxygen Atoms in Organic
Compounds 419
14-2 Structural Characteristics of Alcohols 420
14-3 Nomenclature for Alcohols 421
14-4 Isomerism for Alcohols 424
14-5 Important Commonly Encountered Alcohols 425
14-6 Physical Properties of Alcohols 430
14-7 Preparation of Alcohols 432
14-8 Classification of Alcohols 433
14-9 Chemical Reactions of Alcohols 435
Chemistry at a Glance Summary of Chemical Reactions
Involving Alcohols 443
14-10 Structural Characteristics of Phenols 444
14-11 Nomenclature for Phenols 444
14-12 Physical and Chemical Properties of Phenols 446
14-13 Occurrence of and Uses for Phenols 447
14-14 Structural Characteristics of Ethers 450
14-15 Nomenclature for Ethers 451
14-16 Occurrence of and Uses for Ethers 453
14-17 Isomerism for Ethers 454
14-18 Physical and Chemical Properties of Ethers 457
14-19 Cyclic Ethers 458
14-20 Thiols: Sulfur Analogs of Alcohols 459
14-21 Thioethers: Sulfur Analogs of Ethers 462
Chemistry at a glance Alcohols, Thiols, Ethers, and
Thioethers 464
Chemical connections ns
14-A Menthol: A Useful Naturally Occurring Terpene
Alcohol 435
14-B Red Wine and Resveratrol 450
14-C Ethers as General Anesthetics 455
14-D Garlic and Onions: Odiferous Medicinal Plants 463
15 Aldehydes and Ketones 466
15-1 The Carbonyl Group 466
15-2 Compounds Containing a Carbonyl Group 467
15-3 The Aldehyde and Ketone Functional Groups 469
15-4 Nomenclature for Aldehydes 470
15-5 Nomenclature for Ketones 472
15-6 Isomerism for Aldehydes and Ketones 474
15-7 Selected Common Aldehydes and Ketones 475
15-8 Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones 479
15-9 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones 480
15-10 Oxidation and Reduction of Aldehydes and
Ketones 482
15-11 Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones with
Alcohols 486
Chemistry at a glance Summary of Chemical Reactions
Involving Aldehydes and Ketones 491
15-12 Sulfur-Containing Carbonyl Groups 491
Chemical Connections
15-A Melanin: A Hair and Skin Pigment 478
15-B Diabetes, Aldehyde Oxidation, and Glucose Testing 484
15-C Lachrymatory Aldehydes and Ketones 493
16 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Acid
Derivatives 495
16-1 Structure of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives 495
16-2 IUPAC Nomenclature for Carboxylic Acids 498
16-3 Common Names for Carboxylic Acids 501
16-4 Polyfunctional Carboxylic Acids 504
viii Contents
16-5 Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids 507
16-6 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids 508
16-7 Acidity of Carboxylic Acids 509
16-8 Carboxylic Acid Salts 510
16-9 Carboxylic Acid Decarboxylation Reactions 513
16-10 Structure of Esters 513
16-11 Preparation of Esters 514
Chemistry at a Glance Summary of the “H Versus R”
Relationship for Pairs of Hydrocarbon Derivatives 515
16-12 Nomenclature for Esters 517
16-13 Selected Common Esters 519
16-14 Isomerism for Carboxylic Acids and Esters 522
16-15 Physical Properties of Esters 523
16-16 Chemical Reactions of Esters 524
Chemistry At a glance Summary of Chemical Reactions
Involving Carboxylic Acids and Esters 526
16-17 Sulfur Analogs of Esters 527
16-18 Polyesters 528
16-19 Acid Chlorides and Acid Anhydrides 530
16-20 Esters and Anhydrides of Inorganic Acids 533
Chemical Connections
16-A Nonprescription Pain Relievers Derived from Propanoic
Acid 505
16-B Carboxylic Acids and Skin Care 506
16-C Aspirin 521
16-D Nitroglycerin: An Inorganic Triester 535
17 Amines and Amides 539
17-1 Bonding Characteristics of Nitrogen Atoms in Organic
Compounds 539
17-2 Structure and Classification of Amines 540
17-3 Nomenclature for Amines 542
17-4 Isomerism for Amines 544
17-5 Physical Properties of Amines 545
17-6 Basicity of Amines 546
17-7 Reaction of Amines with Acids 548
17-8 Alkylation of Ammonia and Amines 551
17-9 Heterocyclic Amines 552
17-10 Selected Biochemically Important Amines 556
17-11 Alkaloids 559
17-12 Structure and Classification of Amides 563
17-13 Nomenclature for Amides 565
17-14 Selected Amides and Their Uses 567
17-15 Basicity of Amides 569
17-16 Physical Properties of Amides 570
17-17 Preparation of Amides 571
17-18 Hydrolysis of Amides 574
Chemistry At a glance Summary of Chemical Reactions
Involving Amines and Amides 575
17-19 Polyamides and Polyurethanes 576
Chemical connections
17-A Caffeine: The Most Widely Used Central Nervous System
Stimulant 554
17-B Nicotine Addiction: A Widespread Example of Drug
Dependence 555
17-C Alkaloids Present in Chocolate 560
17-D Acetaminophen: A Substituted Amide 568
Part IIi b io logical Chemistry
18 Carbohydrates 580
18-1 Biochemistry—An Overview 581
18-2 Occurrence and Functions of Carbohydrates 582
18-3 Classification of Carbohydrates 582
18-4 Chirality: Handedness in Molecules 584
18-5 Stereoisomerism: Enantiomers and
Diastereomers 589
18-6 Designating Handedness Using Fischer Projection
Formulas 590
Chemistry At a glance Constitutional Isomers and
Stereoisomers 595
18-7 Properties of Enantiomers 596
18-8 Classification of Monosaccharides 598
18-9 Biochemically Important Monosaccharides 601
18-10 Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides 604
18-11 Haworth Projection Formulas 608
18-12 Reactions of Monosaccharides 611
Chemistry At a glance “Sugar Terminology” Associated with
Monosaccharides and Their Derivatives 615
18-13 Disaccharides 615
18-14 Oligosaccharides 625
18-15 General Characteristics of Polysaccharides 628
18-16 Storage Polysaccharides 630
18-17 Structural Polysaccharides 632
Chemistry At a glance Types of Glycosidic Linkages for
Common Glucose-Containing Di- and
Polysaccharides 634
18-18 Acidic Polysaccharides 636
18-19 Dietary Considerations and Carbohydrates 638
18-20 Glycolipids and Glycoproteins: Cell Recognition 638
Chemical connections
18-A Lactose Intolerance or Lactase Persistence 619
18-B Changing Sugar Patterns: Decreased Sucrose, Increased
Fructose 621
18-C Sugar Substitutes 622
Contents ix
18-D Blood Types and Oligosaccharides 627
18-E Edible Fibers and Health 635
19 Lipids 641
19-1 Structure and Classification of Lipids 641
19-2 Types of Fatty Acids 643
19-3 Physical Properties of Fatty Acids 647
19-4 Energy-Storage Lipids: Triacylglycerols 649
19-5 Dietary Considerations and Triacylglycerols 653
19-6 Chemical Reactions of Triacylglycerols 657
Chemistry At a glance Classification Schemes for Fatty Acid
Residues Present in Triacylglycerols 665
19-7 Membrane Lipids: Phospholipids 666
19-8 Membrane Lipids: Sphingoglycolipids 671
Chemistry At a glance Terminology for and Structural
Relationships Among Various Types of Fatty-AcidContaining Lipids 672
19-9 Membrane Lipids: Cholesterol 673
19-10 Cell Membranes 675
19-11 Emulsification Lipids: Bile Acids 679
19-12 Messenger Lipids: Steroid Hormones 681
19-13 Messenger Lipids: Eicosanoids 685
19-14 Protective-Coating Lipids: Biological Waxes 688
Chemistry At a glance Types of Lipids in Terms of How They
Function 690
19-15 Saponifiable and Nonsaponifiable Lipids 691
Chemical connections ns
19-A The Fat Content of Tree Nuts and Peanuts 655
19-B Fat Substitutes 658
19-C The Cleansing Action of Soap and Detergents 661
19-D Trans Fatty Acid Content of Foods 663
19-E Anabolic Steroid Use in Competitive Sports 684
19-F The Mode of Action for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs 687
20 Proteins 694
20-1 Characteristics of Proteins 694
20-2 Amino Acids: The Building Blocks for Proteins 695
20-3 Essential Amino Acids 698
20-4 Chirality and Amino Acids 699
20-5 Acid–Base Properties of Amino Acids 700
20-6 Cysteine: A Chemically Unique Amino Acid 703
20-7 Peptides 703
20-8 Biochemically Important Small Peptides 707
20-9 General Structural Characteristics of Proteins 709
20-10 Primary Structure of Proteins 710
20-11 Secondary Structure of Proteins 714
20-12 Tertiary Structure of Proteins 717
20-13 Quaternary Structure of Proteins 721
Chemistry At a glance Protein Structure 722
20-14 Protein Hydrolysis 723
20-15 Protein Denaturation 723
20-16 Protein Classification Based on Shape 726
20-17 Protein Classification Based on Function 731
20-18 Glycoproteins 733
20-19 Lipoproteins 736
Chemical connections ns
20-A “Substitutes” for Human Insulin 712
20-B Denaturation and Human Hair 725
20-C Protein Structure and the Color of Meat 730
20-D Cyclosporine: An Antirejection Drug 735
20-E Colostrum: Immunoglobulins and Much More 737
20-F Lipoproteins and Heart Disease Risk 739
21 Enzymes and Vitamins 742
21-1 General Characteristics of Enzymes 742
21-2 Enzyme Structure 743
21-3 Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes 745
21-4 Models of Enzyme Action 750
21-5 Enzyme Specificity 752
21-6 Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity 752
Chemistry At a glance Enzyme Activity 756
21-7 Extremozymes 757
21-8 Enzyme Inhibition 758
Chemistry at a Glance Enzyme Inhibition 760
21-9 Regulation of Enzyme Activity 761
21-10 Prescription Drugs That Inhibit Enzyme Activity 764
21-11 Medical Uses of Enzymes 768
21-12 General Characteristics of Vitamins 770
21-13 Water-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin C 772
21-14 Water-Soluble Vitamins: The B Vitamins 774
21-15 Fat-Soluble Vitamins 781
Chemical connections ns
21-A Enzymatic Browning: Discoloration of Fruits and
Vegetables 749
21-B H. pylori and Stomach Ulcers 754
21-C Enzymes, Prescription Medications, and the “Grapefruit
Effect” 769
22 Nucleic Acids 787
22-1 Types of Nucleic Acids 787
22-2 Nucleotides: Structural Building Blocks For Nucleic
Acids 788
22-3 Nucleotide Formation 790
22-4 Primary Nucleic Acid Structure 793
Chemistry at a Glance Nucleic Acid Structure 796
22-5 The DNA Double Helix 797
22-6 Replication of DNA Molecules 801
Chemistry At A Glance DNA Replication 804
22-7 Overview of Protein Synthesis 806
22-8 Ribonucleic Acids 807
22-9 Transcription: RNA Synthesis 809
22-10 The Genetic Code 815
22-11 Anticodons and tRNA Molecules 818
22-12 Translation: Protein Synthesis 822
Chemistry at a Glance Protein Synthesis: Transcription
and Translation 827
22-13 Mutations 829
x Contents
22-14 Nucleic Acids and Viruses 831
22-15 Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering 833
22-16 The Polymerase Chain Reaction 838
Chemical connections
22-A Antimetabolites: Anticancer Drugs That Inhibit DNA
Synthesis 805
22-B The Circadian Clock and Clock Genes 814
22-C Antibiotic Protein Synthesis Inhibitors 828
22-D Erythropoietin (EPO): Red Blood Cells, Mutations, and
Athletic Performance 832
23 Biochemical Energy Production 841
23-1 Metabolism 841
23-2 Metabolism and Cell Structure 843
23-3 Important Nucleotide-Containing Compounds in
Metabolic Pathways 845
23-4 Important Carboxylate Ions in Metabolic
Pathways 853
23-5 High-Energy Phosphate Compounds 855
23-6 An Overview of Biochemical Energy Production 858
Chemistry At a glance Simplified Summary of the Four
Stages of Biochemical Energy Production 859
23-7 The Citric Acid Cycle 860
Chemistry at a Glance Summary of the Reactions of the
Citric Acid Cycle 865
23-8 The Electron Transport Chain 866
Chemistry At A Glance Summary of the Flow of Electrons
Through the Four Complexes of the Electron Transport
Chain 871
23-9 Oxidative Phosphorylation 872
Chemistry At A Glance Summary of the Common
Metabolic Pathway 875
23-10 ATP Production for the Common Metabolic
Pathway 877
23-11 Non-ETC Oxygen-Consuming Reactions 878
23-12 B Vitamins and the Common Metabolic Pathway 881
Chemical connections
23-A Adenosine Phosphates and Muscle Relaxation/
Contraction 848
23-B Brown Fat, Newborn Babies, and Hibernating
Animals 875
23-C Cyanide Poisoning 876
23-D Phytochemicals: Compounds with Color and Antioxidant
Functions 880
24 Carbohydrate Metabolism 883
24-1 Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 883
24-2 Glycolysis 886
24-3 Fates of Pyruvate 895
24-4 ATP Production from the Complete Oxidation
of Glucose 901
24-5 Glycogen Synthesis and Degradation 903
24-6 Gluconeogenesis 906
24-7 Terminology for Glucose Metabolic Pathways 909
24-8 The Pentose Phosphate Pathway 911
Chemistry At A Glance Glucose Metabolism 912
24-9 Hormonal Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism 913
24-10 B Vitamins and Carbohydrate Metabolism 915
Chemical Connections
24-A Lactate Accumulation 899
24-B Diabetes Mellitus 914
25 Lipid Metabolism 917
25-1 Digestion and Absorption of Lipids 917
25-2 Triacylglycerol Storage and Mobilization 920
25-3 Glycerol Metabolism 922
25-4 Oxidation of Fatty Acids 923
25-5 ATP Production from Fatty Acid Oxidation 928
25-6 Ketone Bodies and Ketogenesis 931
25-7 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids: Lipogenesis 936
25-8 Relationships Between Lipogenesis and Citric Acid Cycle
Intermediates 942
25-9 Fate of Fatty-Acid-Generated Acetyl CoA 944
Chemistry at a Glance Interrelationships Between
Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism 946
25-10 Relationships Between Lipid and
Carbohydrate Metabolism 947
25-11 B Vitamins and Lipid Metabolism 948
Chemical Connections
25-A High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Workouts 931
25-B Statins: Drugs That Lower Plasma Levels of
Cholesterol 945
26 Protein Metabolism 950
26-1 Protein Digestion and Absorption 950
26-2 Amino Acid Utilization 952
26-3 Transamination and Oxidative Deamination 955
26-4 The Urea Cycle 961
Chemistry At a glance Metabolic Reactions That Involve
Nitrogen-Containing Compounds 967
26-5 Amino Acid Carbon Skeletons 969
26-6 Amino Acid Biosynthesis 971
26-7 Hemoglobin Catabolism 973
26-8 Proteins and the Element Sulfur 976
26-9 Interrelationships Among Metabolic Pathways 980
Chemistry At a glance Interrelationships Among
Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism 980
26-10 B Vitamins and Protein Metabolism 982
Chemical connections
26-A The Chemical Composition of Urine 966
26-B Arginine, Citrulline, and the Chemical Messenger Nitric
Oxide 968
Answers to Selected Exercises A-1
Index/Glossary I-1

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