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Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF – eBook

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    • Authors: Frederic MartiniBartholomew Edwin F, Judi Nath (Author)
    • File Size: 103 MB
    • Format: PDF
    • Paperback: 1308 pages
    • Publisher:  Pearson; 11th edition (January 4, 2017)
    • Language: English
    • ISBN-10: 0134396022
    • ISBN-13: 978-0134396026

Download Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF – eBook

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    • Authors: Frederic MartiniBartholomew Edwin F, Judi Nath (Author)
    • File Size: 103 MB
    • Format: PDF
    • Paperback: 1308 pages
    • Publisher:  Pearson; 11th edition (January 4, 2017)
    • Language: English
    • ISBN-10: 0134396022
    • ISBN-13: 978-0134396026

Download Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF – eBook

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UNIT 1 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONS
1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology 1
An Introduction to Studying the Human Body 2
1-1 To make the most of your learning, read the text and View the art together 2
Getting to Know Your Textbook 2
Anatomy of Chapter 3
1-2 Anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) are
closely integrated 3
Anatomy 4
Physiology 5
1-3 Levels of organization progress from chemicals to a
complete organism 6
1-4 Medical terminology is important to understanding
anatomy and physiology 7
1-5 Anatomical terms describe body regions, anatomical
positions and directions, and body sections 7
Surface Anatomy 7
Sectional Anatomy 13
1-6 Body cavities of the trunk protect internal organs and
allow them to change shape 14
The Thoracic Cavity 15
The Abdominopelvic Cavity 18
1-7 Homeostasis, the state of internal balance, is
continuously regulated 18
Mechanisms of Homeostatic Regulation 19
An Overview of the Process of Homeostatic Regulation 19
1-8 Negative feedback opposes variations from normal,
whereas positive feedback enhances them 19
The Role of Negative Feedback in Homeostasis 20
The Role of Positive Feedback in Homeostasis 22
Systems Integration, Equilibrium, and Homeostasis 23
Chapter Review 24
SmartArt Videos
Figure 1–10 Positive Feedback: Blood Clotting. 22
Spotlights
Levels of Organization 8
Clinical Case
Using A&P to Save a Life 2
Contents
xv
Clinical Notes
Habeas Corpus (“You Shall Have the Body”) 5
The Sounds of the Body 13
Diagnostic Imaging Techniques 16
2 The Chemical Level of
Organization 27
An Introduction to the Chemical Level of Organization 28
2-1 Atoms are the basic particles of matter 28
Atomic Structure 28
Elements and Isotopes 29
Atomic Weights 30
Electrons and Energy Levels 31
2-2 Chemical bonds are forces formed by interactions
between atoms 32
Ionic Bonds 34
Covalent Bonds 35
Hydrogen Bonds 36
States of Matter 37
2-3 Decomposition, synthesis, and exchange reactions
are important types of chemical reactions in
physiology 37
Basic Energy Concepts 37
Types of Chemical Reactions 38
2-4 Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the energy
needed to start them 39
2-5 Inorganic compounds lack carbon, and organic
compounds contain carbon 40
2-6 Physiological systems depend on water 40
The Properties of Aqueous Solutions 41
Colloids and Suspensions 42
2-7 Body fluid pH is vital for homeostasis 43
2-8 Acids, bases, and salts have important physiological
roles 44
Acids and Bases 44
Salts 44
Buffers and pH Control 44
2-9 Living things contain organic compounds made up of
monomers, polymers, and functional groups 45
2-10 Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
in a 1:2:1 ratio 45
Monosaccharides 45
Disaccharides and Polysaccharides 46

Contents
2-11 Lipids often contain a carbon-to-hydrogen ratio
of 1:2 47
Fatty Acids 48
Eicosanoids 48
Glycerides 49
Steroids 50
Phospholipids and Glycolipids 51
2-12 Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
nitrogen and are formed from amino acids 51
Protein Structure 53
Protein Shape 54
Enzyme Function 55
Glycoproteins and Proteoglycans 57
2-13 DNA and RNA are nucleic acids 57
Structure of Nucleic Acids 57
Comparison of RNA and DNA 57
2-14 ATP is a high-energy compound used by cells 59
Chapter Review 61
Spotlights
Chemical Notation 33
Clinical Case
What Is Wrong with My Baby? 28
Clinical Notes
Radiation Sickness 32
Too Sweet on Sugar? 49
3 The Cellular Level
of Organization 65
An Introduction to Cells 66
3-1 The plasma membrane separates the cell from its
surrounding environment and performs various
functions 66
Membrane Lipids 67
Membrane Proteins 67
Membrane Carbohydrates 71
3-2 Organelles within the cytoplasm perform particular
functions 71
The Cytosol 72
Nonmembranous Organelles 72
Membranous Organelles 76
3-3 The nucleus contains DNA and enzymes essential for
controlling cellular activities 83
Structure of the Nucleus 83
Information Storage in the Nucleus 84
3-4 DNA controls protein synthesis, cell structure, and
cell function 85
Regulation of Transcription by Gene Activation 85
Transcription of DNA into mRNA 85
Translation from mRNA into a Polypeptide 87
How DNA Controls Cell Structure and Function 89
3-5 Diffusion is a passive transport mechanism
that assists membrane passage of solutes and
water 90
Diffusion 90
Osmosis: Diffusion of Water across Selectively Permeable
Membranes 93
3-6 Carrier-mediated and vesicular transport assist
membrane passage of specific substances 94
Carrier-Mediated Transport 95
Vesicular Transport 97
3-7 The membrane potential of cell results from the
unequal distribution of positive and negative charges
across the plasma membrane 99
3-8 Stages of the cell life cycle include interphase,
mitosis, and cytokinesis 102
The Cell Life Cycle 102
The Mitotic Rate and Energy Use 103
3-9 Several factors regulate the cell life cycle 103
3-10 Abnormal cell growth and division characterize
tumors and cancers 107
3-11 Cellular differentiation is cellular specialization as a
result of gene activation or repression 109
Chapter Review 110
SmartArt Videos
Figure 3–12 mRNA Transcription. 86
Figure 3–13 The Process of Translation. 88
Spotlights
Anatomy of a Model Cell 68
Protein Synthesis, Processing, and Packaging 78
Overview of Membrane Transport 100
Stages of a Cell’s Life Cycle 104
DNA Replication 106
Clinical Case
The Beat Must Go On! 66
Clinical Notes
Lysosomal Storage Diseases 80
Free Radicals 82
DNA Fingerprinting 85
Mutations 87
Drugs and the Plasma Membrane 91
Telomerase, Aging, and Cancer 108
Breakthroughs with Stem Cells 109
4 The Tissue Level
of Organization 114
An Introduction to the Tissue Level of Organization 115
4-1 The four tissue types are epithelial, connective,
muscle, and nervous 115
4-2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines internal
surfaces, and serves other essential functions 115
Functions of Epithelial Tissue 116
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 117

Contents xvii
UNIT 2 SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT
5 The Integumentary
System 152
An Introduction to the Integumentary System 153
5-1 The epidermis is a protective covering composed of
layers with various functions 153
Cells of the Epidermis: Keratinocytes 154
Layers of the Epidermis 154
Epidermal Growth Factor 157
5-2 The dermis is the tissue layer that supports the
epidermis 158
Layers of the Dermis 158
Dermal Strength and Elasticity 158
Tension Lines 159
The Dermal Blood Supply 159
Innervation of the Skin 160
5-3 The subcutaneous layer connects the dermis to
underlying tissues 160
5-4 Epidermal pigmentation and dermal circulation
influence skin color 161
The Role of Epidermal Pigmentation 161
The Role of Dermal Circulation: Hemoglobin 163
Disease-Related Changes in Skin Color 163
5-5 Sunlight causes epidermal cells to convert a steroid
into vitamin D3 163
5-6 Hair is made of keratinized dead cells pushed to the
skin surface where it has protecting and insulating
roles 165
Hair and Hair Follicle Structure 165
Hair Production 166
The Hair Growth Cycle 166
Types of Hairs 168
Hair Color 168
5-7 Sebaceous glands and sweat glands are exocrine
glands found in the skin 168
Sebaceous Glands 168
Sweat Glands 169
Other Integumentary Glands 170
Control of Glandular Secretions and
Thermoregulation 170
5-8 Nails are keratinized epidermal cells that protect the
tips of fingers and toes 171
5-9 After an injury, the integument is repaired in several
phases 172
5-10 Effects of aging on the skin include thinning,
wrinkling, and reduced melanocyte activity 175
Specializations of Epithelial Cells 117
Maintaining the Integrity of Epithelia 118
4-3 Cell shape and number of layers determine the
classification of epithelia 120
Classification of Epithelia 120
Glandular Epithelia 122
4-4 Connective tissue has varied roles in the body that
reflect the physical properties of its three main
types 126
4-5 Connective tissue proper includes loose connective
tissues that fill internal spaces and dense connective
tissues that contribute to the internal framework of
the body 128
Structure of Connective Tissue Proper 128
Loose Connective Tissues 130
Dense Connective Tissues 133
Fasciae: Layers of Connective Tissue Proper 133
4-6 Blood and lymph are fluid connective tissues that
transport cells and dissolved materials 135
4-7 The supporting connective tissues cartilage and bone
provide a strong framework 136
Cartilage 136
Bone 137
4-8 Tissue membranes made from epithelial and
connective tissue makes up four types of physical
barriers 140
Mucous Membranes 140
Serous Membranes 140
The Cutaneous Membrane 141
Synovial Membranes 142
4-9 The three types of muscle tissue are skeletal, cardiac,
and smooth 142
Skeletal Muscle Tissue 142
Cardiac Muscle Tissue 144
Smooth Muscle Tissue 144
4-10 Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and propagates
electrical impulses throughout the body 144
4-11 The response to tissue injury involves inflammation
and regeneration 145
Inflammation 145
Regeneration 146
4-12 With advancing age, tissue regeneration decreases
and cancer rates increase 146
Aging and Tissue Structure 146
Aging and Cancer Incidence 146
Chapter Review 148
Spotlights
Inflammation and Regeneration 147
Clinical Case
The Rubber Girl 115
Clinical Notes
Exfoliative Cytology 126
Marfan Syndrome 131

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