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Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design 3rd Edition PDF – EBook

Author: Gavin Towler
SKU: 0128211792

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  • Authors: Gavin Towler, Ray Sinnott (Author)
  • File Size: 54 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1019 pages
  • Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann; 3rd edition (September 27, 2021)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0128211792
  • ISBN-13: 978-0128211793

Download Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design 3rd Edition PDF – EBook

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  • Authors: Gavin Towler, Ray Sinnott (Author)
  • File Size: 54 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1019 pages
  • Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann; 3rd edition (September 27, 2021)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0128211792
  • ISBN-13: 978-0128211793

Download Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics of Plant and Process Design 3rd Edition PDF – EBook

Introduction to design
1.1 Introduction
This chapter is an introduction to the nature and methodology of the design process and its application to the
design of chemical products and manufacturing processes.
1.2 Nature of design
This section is a general discussion of the design process. The subject of this book is chemical engineering design,
but the methodology described in this section applies equally to other branches of engineering.
Chemical engineering has consistently been one of the highest-paid engineering professions. There is a demand
for chemical engineers in many sectors of industry, including the traditional process industries: chemicals, polymers,
fuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, and paper, as well as other sectors such as electronic materials and devices, consumer
products, mining and metals extraction, biomedical implants, and power generation.
The reason that companies in such a diverse range of industries value chemical engineers so highly is the
following:
Starting from a vaguely defined problem statement such as a customer need or a set of experimental results, chemical engineers can
develop an understanding of the important underlying physical science relevant to the problem and use this understanding to create a
plan of action and set of detailed specifications, which if implemented, will lead to a predicted financial outcome.
The creation of plans and specifications and the prediction of the financial outcome if the plans are implemented
is the activity of chemical engineering design.
Design is a creative activity, and as such can be one of the most rewarding and satisfying activities undertaken by
an engineer. The design does not exist at the start of the project. The designer begins with a specific objective or
3 Chemical Engineering Design, Third Edition
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821179-3.00001-7 Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
customer need in mind, and by developing and evaluating possible designs, arrives at the best way of achieving that
objective, be it a better chair, a new bridge, or for the chemical engineer, a new chemical product or production
process.
When considering possible ways of achieving the objective the designer will be constrained by many factors,
which will narrow down the number of possible designs. There will rarely be just one possible solution to the problem, just one design. Several alternative ways of meeting the objective will normally be possible, even several best
designs, depending on the nature of the constraints.
These constraints on the possible solutions to a problem in design arise in many ways. Some constraints will be
fixed and invariable, such as those that arise from physical laws, government regulations, and engineering
standards. Others will be less rigid and can be relaxed by the designer as part of the general strategy for seeking
the best design. The constraints that are outside the designer’s influence can be termed the external constraints. These
set the outer boundary of possible designs, as shown in Fig. 1.1. Within this boundary there will be a number of plausible designs bounded by the other constraints, the internal constraints, over which the designer has some control;
this can include choice of process, choice of process conditions, materials, and equipment.
Economic considerations are obviously a major constraint on any engineering design: plants must make a profit.
Process costing and economics are discussed in Chapters 7, 8, and 9.
Time will also be a constraint. The time available for completion of a design will usually limit the number of alternative designs that can be considered.
The stages in the development of a design, from the initial identification of the objective to the final design, are
shown diagrammatically in Fig. 1.2. Each stage is discussed in the following sections.
Fig. 1.2 shows design as an iterative procedure. As the design develops, the designer will become aware of more
possibilities and more constraints and will be constantly seeking new data and evaluating possible design solutions.
1.2.1 The design objective (the need)
All design starts with a perceived need. In the design of a chemical product or process, the need is the public need
for the product, creating a commercial opportunity, as foreseen by the sales and marketing organization. Within this
overall objective the designer will recognize subobjectives: the requirements of the various units that make up the
overall process.
Before starting work, the designer should obtain as complete, and as unambiguous, a statement of the requirements as possible. If the requirement (need) arises from outside the design group, from a customer or from another
department, then the designer will have to elucidate the real requirements through discussion. It is important to
distinguish between the needs that are “must-haves” and those that are “should-haves.” The “should-haves” are
Plausible
designs
Government controls
Economic constraints
Safety regulations
Resources
Physical laws
Standards and codes
Personnel
Materials
Process
conditions
Choice of
process
Methods
Time
“External” constraints
“Internal” constraints
Region of all designs
Possible designs
FIG. 1.1 Design constraints.
4 1. Introduction to design
Part I Process design
those parts of the initial specification that may be thought desirable but that can be relaxed if necessary as the design
develops. For example, a particular product specification may be considered desirable by the sales department but
may be difficult and costly to obtain, and some relaxation of the specification may be possible, producing a saleable
but cheaper product. Whenever possible, the designer should always question the design requirements (the project
and equipment specifications) and keep them under review as the design progresses. It is important for the design
engineer to work closely with the sales or marketing department or with the customer directly to have as clear as
possible an understanding of the customer’s needs.
When writing specifications for others, such as for the mechanical design or purchase of a piece of equipment, the
design engineer should be aware of the restrictions (constraints) that are being placed on other designers. A
well-thought-out, comprehensive specification of the requirements for a piece of equipment defines the external
constraints within which the other designers must work.
1.2.2 Setting the design basis
The most important step in starting a process design is translating the customer need into a design basis. The
design basis is a more precise statement of the problem that is to be solved. It will normally include the production
rate and purity specifications of the main product, together with information on constraints that will influence the
design, such as:
1. The system of units to be used.
2. The national, local, or company design codes that must be followed.
3. Details of raw materials that are available.
4. Information on potential sites where the plant might be located, including climate data, seismic conditions and
infrastructure availability. Site design is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.
5. Information on the conditions, availability, and price of utility services such as fuel gas, steam, cooling water,
process air, process water, and electricity that will be needed to run the process.
The design basis must be clearly defined before design can begin. If the design is carried out for a client, then the
design basis should be reviewed with the client at the start of the project. Most companies use standard forms or
questionnaires to capture design basis information. An example template is given in Appendix G and can be downloaded in Microsoft Excel format from the online material at www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/bookcompanion/9780128211793.
Determine
customer needs
Set design
specifications
R&D if needed
Evaluate economics,
optimize & select
design
Predict fitness
for service
Build performance
models
Generate design
concepts
Procurement &
construction Begin operation
Customer
approval
Detailed design &
equipment selection
FIG. 1.2 The design process.
Part I Process desi

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