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Bates’ Guide To Physical Examination and History Taking 13th Edition PDF – eBook

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Download Bates’ Guide To Physical Examination and History Taking 13th Edition PDF – eBook

Contents
Faculty Reviewers and Additional Contributors
Preface
Acknowledgments
How To Use Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking
UNIT 1
Foundations of Health Assessment
CHAPTER 1
Approach to the Clinical Encounter
FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS ESSENTIAL TO THE CLINICAL ENCOUNTER
APPROACH TO THE CLINICAL ENCOUNTER
STRUCTURE AND SEQUENCE OF THE CLINICAL ENCOUNTER
Stage 1: Initiating the Encounter
Stage 2: Gathering Information
Stage 3: Performing the Physical Examination
Stage 4: Explaining and Planning
Stage 5: Closing the Encounter
DISPARITIES IN HEALTHCARE
Social Determinants of Health
Racism and Bias
Cultural Humility
OTHER MAJOR CONSIDERATIONS
Spirituality
Medical Ethics
Documenting the Clinical Encounter
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2
Interviewing, Communication, and Interpersonal
Skills
FUNDAMENTALS OF SKILLED INTERVIEWING
Active or Attentive Listening
Guided Questioning
Empathic Responses
Summarization
Transitions
Partnering
Validation
Empowering the Patient
Reassurance
APPROPRIATE VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Use Understandable Language
Use Nonstigmatizing Language
APPROPRIATE NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS IN COMMUNICATION AND INTERPERSONAL
SKILLS
Broaching Sensitive Topics
Informed Consent
Working with a Medical Interpreter
Advance Directives
Disclosing Serious News
Motivational Interviewing
Interprofessional Communication
CHALLENGING PATIENT SITUATIONS AND BEHAVIORS
Patient Who Is Silent
Patient Who Is Talkative
Patient with Confusing Narrative
Patients with Altered State or Cognition
Patient with Emotional Lability
Patient Who Is Angry or Aggressive
Patient Who Is Flirtatious
Patient Who Is Discriminatory
Patients with Hearing Loss
Patients with Low or Impaired Vision
Patients with Limited Intelligence
Patient Burdened by Personal Problems
Patient Who Is Nonadherent
Patients with Low Literacy
Patients with Low Health Literacy
Patient with Limited Language Proficiency
Patient with Terminal Illness or Who Is Dying
BEING PATIENT-CENTERED IN COMPUTERIZED CLINICAL SETTINGS
LEARNING COMMUNICATION SKILLS FROM STANDARDIZED PATIENTS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3
Health History
HEALTH HISTORY
Different Kinds of Health Histories
Determining the Scope of Your Patient Assessment: Comprehensive or Focused?
Subjective versus Objective Data
COMPREHENSIVE ADULT HEALTH HISTORY
Initial Information
Chief Complaint
History of Present Illness
Past Medical History
Family History
Personal and Social History
Review of Systems
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
MODIFICATION OF THE CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR VARIOUS CLINICAL
SETTINGS
Ambulatory Care Clinic
Emergency Care
Intensive Care Unit
Nursing Home
Home
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3
Physical Examination
ROLE OF THE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION IN THE ERA OF TECHNOLOGY
DETERMINING THE SCOPE OF THE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION:
COMPREHENSIVE OR FOCUSED?
Comprehensive Adult Physical Examination
HEAD-TO-TOE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
General Survey
Vital Signs
Skin
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Throat
Neck
Back
Posterior Thorax and Lungs
Breasts and Axillae
Anterior Thorax and Lungs
Cardiovascular System
Abdomen
Lower Extremities
Nervous System
Additional Examinations
ADAPTING THE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: SPECIFIC PATIENT CONDITIONS
Patient on Bedrest
Patient Using a Wheelchair
Patient Who Is Postprocedure
Patient Who Is Obese
Patient in Pain
Patient on Special Precautions
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5
Clinical Reasoning, Assessment, and Plan
CLINICAL REASONING: PROCESS
Basic Structure of the Clinical Reasoning Process
Clinical Diagnostic Errors
CLINICAL REASONING: DOCUMENTATION
Document the Problem Representation (Summary Statement)
Assessment and Plan
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
PROGRESS NOTES AND PATIENT PROBLEM LISTS IN THE ELECTRONIC
HEALTH RECORD
Patient Problem List
ORAL PRESENTATION
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 6
Health Maintenance and Screening
CONCEPT OF PREVENTIVE CARE
GUIDELINE RECOMMENDATIONS
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Approach
Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation
SCREENING
Basic Approach to Screening
BEHAVIORAL COUNSELING
Motivational Interviewing
IMMUNIZATIONS
SCREENING GUIDELINES FOR ADULTS
Screening for Unhealthy Weight and Diabetes Mellitus
Screening for Substance Use Disorders, Including Misuse of Prescription and
Illicit Drugs
Screening for IPV, Domestic Violence, Elder Abuse, and Abuse of Vulnerable
Adults
COUNSELING GUIDELINES FOR ADULTS
Weight Loss
Healthful Diet and Physical Activity
SCREENING AND COUNSELING GUIDELINES FOR ADULTS
Unhealthy Alcohol Use
Tobacco Use
Screening and Counseling for STIs
IMMUNIZATION GUIDELINES FOR ADULTS
Influenza Vaccine
Pneumococcal Vaccine
Varicella Vaccine
Herpes Zoster Vaccine
Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis Vaccine
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine
Hepatitis A Vaccine
Hepatitis B Vaccine
PREVENTIVE CARE IN SPECIAL POPULATIONS
DISEASE-SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7
Evaluating Clinical Evidence
USING ELEMENTS OF THE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AS
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
EVALUATING DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
Validity
APPLYING CONCEPTS TO SCREENING TESTS
Fagan Nomogram
Natural Frequencies
Reproducibility
CRITICALLY APPRAISING THE CLINICAL EVIDENCE
COMMUNICATING CLINICAL EVIDENCE TO PATIENTS
REFERENCES
UNIT 2
Regional Examinations
CHAPTER 8
General Survey, Vital Signs, and Pain
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Fatigue and Weakness
Fever, Chills, and Night Sweats
Weight Change
Pain
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
General Survey
Vital Signs
Acute and Chronic Pain
Types of Pain
Assessing Acute and Chronic Pain
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Screening for Hypertension
Blood Pressure and Dietary Sodium
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9
Cognition, Behavior, and Mental Status
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Anxiety, Excessive Worrying
Depressed Mood
Memory Problems
Patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Appearance and Behavior
Speech and Language
Mood
Thought
Perceptions
Cognitive Functions
Higher Cognitive Functions
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Screening for Depression
Assessing for Suicide Risk
Screening for Neurocognitive Disorders
Screening for Substance Use Disorders, Including Misuse of Alcohol and
Prescription and Illicit Drugs
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10
Skin, Hair, and Nails
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Skin
Hair
Nails
Pilosebaceous Glands and Sweat Glands
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Lesions
Rashes and Itching (Pruritus)
Hair Loss and Nail Changes
DESCRIBING SKIN LESIONS
Primary Lesion
Size
Number
Distribution
Configuration
Texture
Color
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
Lighting, Equipment, and Dermoscopy
Patient Gown
Handwashing
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Standard Technique: Patient Position—Seated Then Standing
Alternative Technique: Patient Position—Supine Then Prone
Integrated Skin Examinations
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Patient Instructions for the Skin Self-Examination
Examining the Patient with Hair Loss
Evaluating the Bedbound Patient
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Epidemiology
Skin Cancer Prevention
Skin Cancer Screening
Screening for Melanoma: The ABCDEs
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 11
Head and Neck
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Head
Neck
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Neck Mass or Lump
Thyroid Mass, Nodule, or Goiter
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Hair
Scalp
Skull
Face
Skin
Cervical Lymph Nodes
Trachea
Thyroid Gland
Carotid Arteries and Jugular Veins
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Screening for Thyroid Dysfunction
Screening for Thyroid Cancer
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 12
Eyes
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Visual Fields
Visual Pathways
Autonomic Nerve Supply to the Eyes
Extraocular Movements
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Vision Changes
Eye Pain, Redness, or Tearing
Double Vision
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Visual Acuity
Visual Fields
Color Vision
Contrast Sensitivity
Eye Position and Alignment
Eyebrows
Eyelids
Lacrimal Apparatus
Conjunctiva and Sclera
Cornea and Lens
Iris
Pupils
Extraocular Muscles
Ophthalmoscopic (Funduscopic) Examination
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Eye Protrusion (Proptosis or Exophthalmos)
Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction
Everything Upper Eyelid to Search for Foreign Body
Swinging Flashlight Test
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Visual Impairment
Screening for Glaucoma
UV-Related Eye Injuries
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 13
Ears and Nose
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Ear
Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Hearing Loss
Earache and Ear Discharge
Tinnitus
Dizziness and Vertigo
Rhinorrhea and Nasal Congestion
Epistaxis
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Auricle
Ear Canal and Tympanic Membrane
Testing Auditory Acuity or Gross Hearing
Testing for Conductive versus Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Tuning Fork Tests
The surface of the Nose
Nasal Cavity and Mucosa
Nasal Septum
Paranasal Sinuses
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
SCREENING FOR HEARING LOSS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 14
Throat and Oral Cavity
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Mouth, Gingiva, and Teeth
Tongue
Pharynx
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Sore Throat
Bleeding or Swollen Gums
Hoarseness
Malodorous Breath
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Lips and Oral Mucosa
Gums and Teeth
Roof and Floor of the Mouth and the Tongue
Pharynx
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Oral Health
Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 15
Thorax and Lungs
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Locating Findings on the Chest
Breathing
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea) and Wheezing
Cough
Hemoptysis
Chest Pain
Daytime Sleepiness, Snoring and Disordered Sleep
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Initial Survey of Respiration and the Thorax
Posterior Chest
Anterior Chest
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Clinical Assessment of Pulmonary Function
Forced Expiratory Time
Identification of a Fractured Rib
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Lung Cancer
Latent Tuberculosis
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 16
Cardiovascular System
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Surface Projections of the Heart and Great Vessels
Cardiac Chambers, Valves, and Circulation
Events in the Cardiac Cycle
Splitting of Heart Sounds
Heart Murmurs
Relation of Auscultatory Findings to the Chest Wall
Conduction System
The Heart as a Pump
Arterial Pulses and Blood Pressure
Jugular Venous Pressure and Pulsations
Changes Over the Life Span
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Chest Pain
Palpitations
Shortness of Breath
Swelling (Edema)
Fainting (Syncope)
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Jugular Venous Pressure
Carotid Arteries
Heart
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES: BEDSIDE MANEUVERS TO IDENTIFY MURMURS
AND HEART FAILURE
Standing and Squatting
Valsalva Maneuver
Isometric Handgrip
Transient Arterial Occlusion
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Challenges of Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
Health Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease
Screening for Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Promoting Lifestyle Change and Risk Factor Modification
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 17
Peripheral Vascular System
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Arterial System
Venous System
Lymphatic System
Transcapillary Fluid Exchange
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Peripheral Venous Disease (or Venous Thromboembolism)
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Arms
Abdomen
Legs
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Assessing for Peripheral Arterial Disease
Evaluating Arterial Perfusion of the Hand
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Screening for Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease
Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 18
Breasts and Axillae
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Female Breast
Axilla
Male Breast
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Breast Lump or Mass
Breast Discomfort or Pain
Nipple Discharge
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Female Breast
Axillae
Male Breast
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Examination after Mastectomy or Breast Reconstruction
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Breast Cancer in Women
MALE BREAST CANCER
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 19
Abdomen
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Abdominal Cavity and Contents
Pelvic Cavity and Contents
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain and Associated Gastrointestinal Symptoms
Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia) and/or Painful Swallowing (Odynophagia)
Change in Bowel Function
Diarrhea
Constipation
Jaundice
Urinary Symptoms
Flank Pain and Ureteral Colic
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Abdomen
Liver
Spleen
Kidneys
Urinary Bladder
Aorta
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Assessing Possible Ascites
Assessing Possible Appendicitis
Assessing Possible Acute Cholecystitis
Assessing Ventral Hernias
Abdominal Wall Mass
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Viral Hepatitis
Colorectal Cancer
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 20
Male Genitalia
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Genitalia
Groin
Lymphatics
Male Sexual Development and Function
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Penile Discharge or Lesions and Scrotal or Testicular Pain, Swelling, or Lesions
Sexually Transmitted Infections
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Penis
Scrotum and Scrotal Contents
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Evaluating Groin Hernias
Testicular Self-Examination
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Testicular Cancer
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 21
Female Genitalia
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Vulva
Vagina
Uterus
Adnexa
Pelvic Floor
Lymphatics
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Menarche and Menses
Abnormal Bleeding
Menopause
Pelvic Pain—Acute and Chronic
Vulvovaginal Symptoms
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
Positioning
Examining Equipment
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
External Examination
Internal Examination
Hernias
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Assessing Urethritis
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Cervical Cancer
Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy
Ovarian Cancer
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 22
Anus, Rectum, and Prostate
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Change in Bowel Habits
Pain on Defecation
Anal Warts and Fissures
Weak Urinary Stream
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Patient with a Prostate
Patient without a Prostate (Woman or Man with Prostatectomy)
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Prostate Cancer
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 23
Musculoskeletal System
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Joints
Bursae
Articular and Extraarticular Joint Structures
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Joint Pain
Neck Pain
Low Back Pain
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
Inspection
Palpation
Range of Motion
Special Maneuvers
Other Examination Techniques
REGIONAL JOINT EXAMINATIONS
Temporomandibular Joint
Shoulder Joint
Elbow Joint
Wrist and Hand Joints
Vertebral Spine
Hip Joint
Knee Joint
Special Techniques: Tests for Knee Joint Effusions
Ankle Joint and Foot
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Measuring Leg Length
Describing Limited Joint Motion
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Low Back Pain
Osteoporosis
Preventing Falls
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 24
Nervous System
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Motor Pathways
Sensory Pathways
Spinal Reflexes: Muscle Stretch Response
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Headache
Dizziness or Lightheadedness
Weakness
Numbness or Abnormal or Absent Sensation
Fainting and Blacking Out (Near-Syncope and Syncope)
Seizures
Tremors or Involuntary Movements
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Cranial Nerves
Motor System
Sensory System
Muscle Stretch Reflexes
Cutaneous or Superficial Stimulation Reflexes
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Meningeal Signs
Lumbosacral Radiculopathy: Straight-Leg Raise
Asterixis (Flapping Tremor)
Assessing the Comatose Patient
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Preventing Cerebrovascular Disease
Screening for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis
Screening for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
REFERENCES
UNIT 3
Special Populations
CHAPTER 25
Children: Infancy through Adolescence
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT
SURVEILLANCE OF DEVELOPMENT
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social and Emotional Development
Developmental Quotient
KEY COMPONENTS OF HEALTH PROMOTION
NEWBORNS AND INFANTS
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
SURVEILLANCE OF DEVELOPMENT
Physical Development
Cognitive and Language Development
Social and Emotional Development
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
Newborns
Infants
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION: INFANTS
Assessment at Birth
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN–HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL
APPROACH
Establishing Rapport
Working with Families
Multiple Agendas
Family as a Resource
Hidden Agendas
SURVEILLANCE OF DEVELOPMENT: EARLY CHILDHOOD: 1 TO 4 YEARS
Physical Development
Cognitive and Language Development
SURVEILLANCE OF DEVELOPMENT: MIDDLE CHILDHOOD, 5 TO 10 YEARS
Physical Development
Cognitive and Language Development
Social and Emotional Development
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
Assessing Younger Children
Assessing Older Children
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Somatic Growth
Vital Signs
Skin
Head
Eyes
Ears
Nose and Sinuses
Mouth and Pharynx
Thorax and Lungs
Heart
Abdomen
Female Genitalia
Rectum and Anus
Musculoskeletal System
Nervous System
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Children 1 to 4 Years
Children 5 to 10 Years
ADOLESCENTS: HEALTH HISTORY
HEEADSSS Assessment
SURVEILLANCE OF DEVELOPMENT: 11 TO 20 YEARS
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social and Emotional Development
Gender and Sexual Identity Formation among Adolescents
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Somatic Growth: Height and Weight
Vital Signs
Skin
Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Mouth, and Neck
Thorax and Lungs
Breasts
Heart
Abdomen
Male Genitalia
Female Genitalia
Rectum and Anus
Musculoskeletal System
Nervous System
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 26
Pregnant Woman
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Physiologic Hormonal Changes
Anatomic Changes
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Initial Prenatal History
Subsequent Prenatal Visits
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Positioning
Examining Equipment
General Inspection
Height, Weight, and Vital Signs
Head and Neck
Thorax and Lungs
Heart
Breasts
Abdomen
Genitalia
Anus, Rectum, and Rectovaginal Septum
Extremities
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
Leopold Maneuvers
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Nutrition
Weight Gain
Exercise and Physical Activity
Substance Use including Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drugs
Intimate Partner Violence Screening
Screening for Perinatal Depression
Immunizations
Prenatal Laboratory Screenings
Genetic Testing and Aneuploidy Screening
Prenatal Supplementation
Unintended Pregnancy
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 27
Older Adult
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Vital Signs
Skin, Nails, and Hair
Eyes
Ears
Nose, Mouth, Teeth, and Lymph Nodes
Thorax and Lungs
Cardiovascular System
Peripheral Vascular System
Breasts and Axillae
Abdomen
Male and Female Genitourinary System; Prostate
Musculoskeletal System
Nervous System
HEALTH HISTORY: GENERAL APPROACH
Communicating Effectively with Older Adults
Shaping the Content and Pace of the Visit
Eliciting Symptoms from the Older Adult
Addressing Cultural Dimensions of Aging
Functional Impairments in Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of
Daily Living
Medication Management
Smoking
Alcohol
Nutrition
SPECIAL TOPICS IN OLDER ADULT CARE
Frailty
Advance Directives and Palliative Care
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: GENERAL APPROACH
TECHNIQUES OF EXAMINATION
Assessing Functional Status
General Survey
Vital Signs
Skin, Hair, and Nails
Eyes
Ears
Mouth and Teeth
Neck
Thorax and Lungs
Cardiovascular System
Breasts and Axillae
Peripheral Vascular System
Abdomen
Female Genitalia and Pelvic Examination
Male Genitalia and Prostate
Musculoskeletal System
Nervous System
RECORDING YOUR FINDINGS
HEALTH PROMOTION AND COUNSELING: EVIDENCE AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
When to Screen
Screening for Visual and Hearing Impairments
Exercise and Physical Activity
Household Safety and Fall Prevention
Immunizations
Cancer Screening
Detecting the “3 Ds”: Delirium, Dementia, and Depression
Elder Mistreatment and Abuse
REFERENCES
Index

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