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Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes 5th Edition PDF – EBook

Author: Richard Turton
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  • Authors: Richard Turton, Richard C. Bailie, Wallace B. Whiting, Joseph A. Shaeiwitz, Debangsu Bhattacharyya (Author)
  • File Size: 68 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1549 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 5th edition (June 12, 2018)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0134177401
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134177403

Download Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes (International Series in the Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences) 5th Edition PDF – EBook

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  • Authors: Richard Turton, Richard C. Bailie, Wallace B. Whiting, Joseph A. Shaeiwitz, Debangsu Bhattacharyya (Author)
  • File Size: 68 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 1549 pages
  • Publisher: Pearson; 5th edition (June 12, 2018)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0134177401
  • ISBN-13: 978-0134177403

Download Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes (International Series in the Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences) 5th Edition PDF – EBook

Contents
Preface
About the Authors
List of Nomenclature
Chapter 0 Outcomes Assessment
0.1 Student Self-Assessment
0.2 Assessment by Faculty
0.3 Summary
References
SECTION I Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical
Processes
Chapter 1 Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes
1.1 Block Flow Diagram (BFD)
1.1.1 Block Flow Process Diagram
1.1.2 Block Flow Plant Diagram
1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
1.2.1 Process Topology
1.2.2 Stream Information
1.2.3 Equipment Information
1.2.4 Combining Topology, Stream Data, and
Control Strategy to Give a PFD
1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)
1.4 Additional Diagrams
1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process
1.6 The 3-D Plant Model
1.7 Operator and 3-D Immersive Training
Simulators
1.7.1 Operator Training Simulators (OTS)
1.7.2 3-D Immersive Training Simulators
(ITS)
1.7.3 Linking the ITS with an OTS
1.8 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 2 The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow
Diagrams
2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design
2.2 Step 1—Batch versus Continuous Process
2.3 Step 2—The Input/Output Structure of the
Process
2.3.1 Process Concept Diagram
2.3.2 The Input/Output Structure of the
Process Flow Diagram
2.3.3 The Input/Output Structure and Other
Features of the Generic Block Flow
Process Diagram
2.3.4 Other Considerations for the
Input/Output Structure of the Process
Flowsheet
2.3.5 What Information Can Be Determined
Using the Input/Output Diagram for a
Process?
2.4 Step 3—The Recycle Structure of the Process
2.4.1 Ef iciency of Raw Material Usage
2.4.2 Identification and Definition of the
Recycle Structure of the Process
2.4.3 Other Issues Af ecting the Recycle
Structure That Lead to Process
Alternatives
2.5 Step 4—General Structure of the Separation
System
2.6 Step 5—Heat-Exchanger Network or Process
Energy Recovery System
2.7 Information Required and Sources
2.8 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 3 Batch Processing
3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes
3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling
3.3 Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping
Operations, and Cycle Times
3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants
3.4.1 Flowshop Plants
3.4.2 Jobshop Plants
3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel
Process Units
3.5.1 Product Storage for Single-Product
Campaigns
3.5.2 Intermediate Storage
3.5.3 Parallel Process Units
3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch
Processes
3.7 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 4 Chemical Product Design
4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design
4.2 Needs
4.3 Ideas
4.4 Selection
4.5 Manufacture
4.6 Batch Processing
4.7 Economic Considerations
4.8 Summary
References
Chapter 5 Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow
Diagram
5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals
5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a
Chemical Process
5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams
5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals
5.5 Limitations
5.6 Written Process Description
5.7 Summary
Problems
Chapter 6 Understanding Process Conditions
6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation
of Separation and Reactor Systems
6.1.1 Pressure
6.1.2 Temperature
6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special
Concern
6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation
of Other Equipment
6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions
6.4.1 Evaluation of Reactor R-101
6.4.2 Evaluation of High-Pressure Phase
Separator V-102
6.4.3 Evaluation of Large Temperature
Driving Force in Exchanger E-101
6.4.4 Evaluation of Exchanger E-102
6.4.5 Pressure Control Valve on Stream 8
6.4.6 Pressure Control Valve on Stream from
V-102 to V-103
6.5 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
SECTION II Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical
Processes
Chapter 7 Estimation of Capital Costs
7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates
7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs
7.2.1 Ef ect of Capacity on Purchased
Equipment Cost
7.2.2 Ef ect of Time on Purchased Equipment
Cost
7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant
7.3.1 Lang Factor Technique
7.3.2 Module Costing Technique
7.3.3 Bare Module Cost for Equipment at Base
Conditions
7.3.4 Bare Module Cost for Non-Base-Case
Conditions
7.3.5 Combination of Pressure and MOC
Information to Give the Bare Module
Factor, F , and Bare Module Cost,
C
7.3.6 Algorithm for Calculating Bare Module
Costs
7.3.7 Grassroots (Green Field) and Total
Module Costs
7.3.8 A Computer Program (CAPCOST) for
Capital Cost Estimation Using the
Equipment Module Approach
7.4 Estimation of Plant Costs Based on Capacity
Information
7.5 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 8 Estimation of Manufacturing Costs
8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a
Chemical Product
8.2 Cost of Operating Labor
8.3 Utility Costs
8.3.1 Background Information on Utilities
8.3.2 Calculation of Utility Costs
8.4 Raw Material Costs
8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors
8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD
8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams
8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the
Production of Benzene via the
Hydrodealkylation of Toluene
8.9 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
BM
BM
Problems
Chapter 9 Engineering Economic Analysis
9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money
9.2 Different Types of Interest
9.2.1 Simple Interest
9.2.2 Compound Interest
9.2.3 Interest Rates Changing with Time
9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations
9.3.1 Ef ective Annual Interest Rate
9.3.2 Continuously Compounded Interest
9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams
9.4.1 Discrete Cash Flow Diagram
9.4.2 Cumulative Cash Flow Diagram
9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams
9.5.1 Annuities—A Uniform Series of Cash
Transactions
9.5.2 Discount Factors
9.6 Inflation
9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment
9.7.1 Fixed Capital, Working Capital, and
Land
9.7.2 Dif erent Types of Depreciation
9.7.3 Current Depreciation Method (2017):
Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery
System (MACRS)
9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit
9.9 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 10 Profitability Analysis
10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project
10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation
10.2.1 Nondiscounted Profitability Criteria
10.2.2 Discounted Profitability Criteria
10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental
Economic Analysis
10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from
Investments: The Concept of Risk
10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives
10.5.1 Equipment with the Same Expected
Operating Lives
10.5.2 Equipment with Dif erent Expected
Operating Lives
10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities
10.6.1 Nondiscounted Methods for
Incremental Analysis
10.6.2 Discounted Methods for Incremental
Analysis
10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability
10.7.1 Forecasting Uncertainty in Chemical
Processes
10.7.2 Quantifying Risk
10.8 Profit Margin Analysis
10.9 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
SECTION III Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes
Chapter 11 Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm
the Suitability of a Process Design
11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process
11.1.1 Introduction to Technical Heuristics and
Shortcut Methods
11.1.2 Maximizing the Benefits Obtained from
Experience
11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics
and Guidelines
11.3 Summary
List of Informational Tables
References
Problems
Chapter 12 Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD
12.1 Information Needs and Sources
12.1.1 Interactions with Other Engineers and
Scientists
12.1.2 Reaction Kinetics Data
12.1.3 Physical Property Data
12.2 Reactor Section
12.3 Separator Section
12.3.1 General Guidelines for Choosing
Separation Operations
12.3.2 Sequencing of Distillation Columns for
Simple Distillation
12.3.3 Azeotropic Distillation
12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed
Preparation Sections
12.5 Recycle Section
12.6 Environmental Control Section
12.7 Major Process Control Loops
12.8 Flow Summary Table
12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table
12.10 Summary
References
General Reference
Problems
Chapter 13 Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and
Simulator Troubleshooting
13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator
13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process
Simulation: Input Data
13.2.1 Selection of Chemical Components
13.2.2 Selection of Physical Property Models
13.2.3 Selection and Input of Flowsheet
Topology
13.2.4 Selection of Feed Stream Properties
13.2.5 Selection of Equipment Parameters
13.2.6 Selection of Output Display Options
13.2.7 Selection of Convergence Criteria and
Running a Simulation
13.2.8 Common Errors in Using Simulators
13.3 Handling Recycle Streams
13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models
13.4.1 Pure-Component Properties
13.4.2 Enthalpy
13.4.3 Phase Equilibria
13.4.4 Using Thermodynamic Models
13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process
13.6 Electrolyte Systems Modeling
13.6.1 Fundamentals of Modeling Electrolyte
Systems
13.6.2 Steps Needed to Build the Model of an
Aqueous Electrolyte System and the
Estimation of Parameters
13.7 Solids Modeling
13.7.1 Physical Properties
13.7.2 Parameter Requirements for Solids
Model
Appendix 13.1
Calculation of Excess Gibbs Energy for
Electrolyte Systems
Appendix 13.2
Steps to Build a Model of a Distillation
Column for an Electrolyte System Using a
Rate-Based Simulation with a Film Model for
Mass Transfer, the Parameters Required at
Each Stage, and Possible Sources of These
Parameters
13.8 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 14 Process Optimization
14.1 Background Information on Optimization
14.1.1 Common Misconceptions
14.1.2 Estimating Problem Dif iculty
14.1.3 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Strategies
14.1.4 Communication of Optimization Results
14.2 Strategies
14.2.1 Base Case
14.2.2 Objective Functions
14.2.3 Analysis of the Base Costs
14.2.4 Identifying and Prioritizing Key
Decision Variables
14.3 Topological Optimization
14.3.1 Introduction
14.3.2 Elimination of Unwanted
Nonhazardous By-Products or
Hazardous Waste Streams
14.3.3 Elimination and Rearrangement of
Equipment
14.3.4 Alternative Separation Schemes and
Reactor Configurations
14.4 Parametric Optimization
14.4.1 Single-Variable Optimization: A Case
Study on T-201, the DME Separation
Column
14.4.2 Two-Variable Optimization: The Ef ect
of Pressure and Reflux Ratio on T-201,
the DME Separation Column
14.4.3 Flowsheet Optimization Using Key
Decision Variables
14.5 Lattice Search, Response Surface, and
Mathematical Optimization Techniques
14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the
Optimum
14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems
14.7.1 Problem of Scheduling Equipment
14.7.2 Problem of Optimum Cycle Time
14.8 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 15 Pinch Technology
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design
15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram
15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems
without a Pinch
15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to
Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area
15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of
Shells
15.7 Combining Costs to Give the EAOC for the
Network
15.8 Other Considerations
15.8.1 Materials of Construction and
Operating Pressure Issues
15.8.2 Problems with Multiple Utilities
15.8.3 Handling Streams with Phase Changes
15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis
and Design (HENSAD) Program
15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks
15.11 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 16 Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators
16.1 Why the Need for Advanced Topics in SteadyState Simulation?
16.2 User-Added Models
16.2.1 Unit Operation Models
16.2.2 User Thermodynamic and Transport
Models
16.2.3 User Kinetic Models
16.3 Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations
16.3.1 Sequential Modular (SM)
16.3.2 Equation-Oriented (EO)
16.3.3 Simultaneous Modular (SMod)
16.4 Studies with the Steady-State Simulation
16.4.1 Sensitivity Studies
16.4.2 Optimization Studies
16.5 Estimation of Physical Property Parameters
16.6 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 17 Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design
17.1 Why Is There a Need for Dynamic Simulation?
17.2 Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation
17.2.1 Step 1: Topological Change in the
Steady-State Simulation
17.2.2 Step 2: Equipment Geometry and Size
17.2.3 Step 3: Additional Dynamic
Data/Dynamic Specification
17.3 Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods
17.3.1 Initialization
17.3.2 Solution of the DAE System
17.4 Process Control
17.5 Summary
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 18 Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with
Applications Using Commercial Software
18.1 A Simple Regulation Problem
18.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves
18.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures
18.4 The Measurement of Process Variables
18.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical
Processes
18.5.1 Feedback Control and Regulation
18.5.2 Feed-Forward Control and Regulation
18.5.3 Combination Feedback and FeedForward Control
18.5.4 Cascade Regulation
18.5.5 Ratio Control
18.5.6 Split-Range Control
18.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process
and Utility Streams
18.6.1 Increasing the Pressure of a Process
Stream and Regulating Its Flowrate
18.6.2 Exchanging Heat between Process
Streams and Utilities
18.6.3 Exchanging Heat between Process
Streams
18.7 Logic Control
18.8 Advanced Process Control
18.8.1 Statistical Process Control (SPC)
18.8.2 Model-Based Control
18.9 Case Studies
18.9.1 The Cumene Reactor, R-801
18.9.2 A Basic Control System for a Binary
Distillation Column
18.9.3 A More Sophisticated Control System
for a Binary Distillation Column
18.10 Putting It All Together: The Operator Training
Simulator (OTS)
18.11 Summary
References
Problems
SECTION IV Chemical Equipment Design and Performance
Process Equipment Design and Performance
Chapter 19 Process Fluid Mechanics
19.1 Basic Relationships in Fluid Mechanics
19.1.1 Mass Balance
19.1.2 Mechanical Energy Balance
19.1.3 Force Balance
19.2 Fluid Flow Equipment
19.2.1 Pipes
19.2.2 Valves
19.2.3 Pumps
19.2.4 Compressors
19.3 Frictional Pipe Flow
19.3.1 Calculating Frictional Losses
19.3.2 Incompressible Flow
19.3.3 Compressible Flow
19.3.4 Choked Flow
19.4 Other Flow Situations
19.4.1 Flow Past Submerged Objects
19.4.2 Fluidized Beds
19.4.3 Flowrate Measurement
19.5 Performance of Fluid Flow Equipment
19.5.1 Base-Case Ratios
19.5.2 Net Positive Suction Head
19.5.3 Pump and System Curves
19.5.4 Compressors
19.5.5 Performance of the Feed Section to a
Process
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 20 Process Heat Transfer
20.1 Basic Heat-Exchanger Relationships
20.1.1 Countercurrent Flow
20.1.2 Cocurrent Flow
20.1.3 Streams with Phase Changes
20.1.4 Nonlinear Q versus T Curves
20.1.5 Overall Heat Transfer Coef icient, U,
Varies along the Exchanger
20.2 Heat-Exchange Equipment Design and
Characteristics
20.2.1 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
20.3 LMTD Correction Factor for Multiple Shell and
Tube Passes
20.3.1 Background
20.3.2 Basic Configuration of a Single-ShellPass, Double-Tube-Pass (1–2)
Exchanger
20.3.3 Multiple Shell-and-Tube-Pass
Exchangers
20.3.4 Cross-Flow Exchangers
20.3.5 LMTD Correction and Phase Change
20.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients—
Resistances in Series
20.5 Estimation of Individual Heat Transfer
Coefficients and Fouling Resistances
20.5.1 Heat Transfer Resistances Due to
Fouling
20.5.2 Thermal Conductivities of Common
Metals and Tube Properties
20.5.3 Correlations for Film Heat Transfer
Coef icients
20.6 Extended Surfaces
20.6.1 Rectangular Fin with Constant
Thickness
20.6.2 Fin Ef iciency for Other Fin Geometries
20.6.3 Total Heat Transfer Surface
Ef ectiveness
20.7 Algorithm and Worked Examples for the
Design of Heat Exchangers
20.7.1 Pressure Drop Considerations
20.7.2 Design Algorithm
20.8 Performance Problems
20.8.1 What Variables to Specify in
Performance Problems
20.8.2 Using Ratios to Determine HeatExchanger Performance
20.8.3 Worked Examples for Performance
Problems
References
Appendix 20.A Heat-Exchanger Effectiveness
Charts
Appendix 20.B Derivation of Fin Effectiveness for a
Rectangular Fin
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 21 Separation Equipment
21.1 Basic Relationships in Separations
21.1.1 Mass Balances
21.1.2 Energy Balances
21.1.3 Equilibrium Relationships
21.1.4 Mass Transfer Relationships
21.1.5 Rate Expressions
21.2 Illustrative Diagrams
21.2.1 TP-xy Diagrams
21.2.2 McCabe-Thiele Diagram
21.2.3 Dilute Solutions—The Kremser and
Colburn Methods
21.3 Equipment
21.3.1 Drums
21.3.2 Tray Towers
21.3.3 Packed Towers
21.3.4 Tray Tower or Packed Tower?
21.3.5 Performance of Packed and Tray
Towers
Case Study
21.4 Extraction Equipment
21.4.1 Mixer-Settlers
21.4.2 Static and Pulsed Columns
21.4.3 Agitated Columns
21.4.4 Centrifugal Extractors
21.5 Gas Permeation Membrane Separations
21.5.1 Equipment
21.5.2 Models for Gas Permeation Membranes
21.5.3 Practical Issues
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 22 Reactors
22.1 Basic Relationships
22.1.1 Kinetics
22.1.2 Equilibrium
22.1.3 Additional Mass Transfer Ef ects
22.1.4 Mass Balances
22.1.5 Energy Balances
22.1.6 Reactor Models
22.2 Equipment Design for Nonisothermal
Conditions
22.2.1 Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred
Tank Reactor
22.2.2 Nonisothermal Plug Flow Reactor
22.2.3 Fluidized Bed Reactor
22.3 Performance Problems
22.3.1 Ratios for Simple Cases
22.3.2 More Complex Examples
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 23 Other Equipment
23.1 Pressure Vessels
23.1.1 Material Properties
23.1.2 Basic Design Equations
23.2 Knockout Drums or Simple Phase Separators
23.2.1 Vapor-Liquid (V-L) Separation
23.2.2 Design of Vertical V-L Separators
23.2.3 Design of Horizontal V-L Separators
23.2.4 Mist Eliminators and Other Internals
23.2.5 Liquid-Liquid (L-L) Separation
23.3 Steam Ejectors
23.3.1 Estimating Air Leaks into Vacuum
Systems and the Load for Steam
Ejectors
23.3.2 Single-Stage Steam Ejectors
23.3.3 Multistage Steam Ejectors
23.3.4 Performance of Steam Ejectors
References
Short Answer Questions
Problems
Chapter 24 Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking
24.1 Recommended Methodology
24.1.1 Elements of Problem-Solving Strategies
24.1.2 Application to Troubleshooting
Problems
24.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units
24.2.1 Troubleshooting a Packed-Bed
Absorber
24.2.2 Troubleshooting the Cumene Process
Feed Section
24.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units
24.3.1 Troubleshooting Of -Specification
Acrylic Acid Product
24.3.2 Troubleshooting Steam Release in
Cumene Reactor
24.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem
24.5 Debottlenecking Problems
24.6 Summary
References
Problems
SECTION V The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on
Society
Chapter 25 Ethics and Professionalism
25.1 Ethics
25.1.1 Moral Autonomy
25.1.2 Rehearsal
25.1.3 Reflection in Action
25.1.4 Mobile Truth
25.1.5 Nonprofessional Responsibilities
25.1.6 Duties and Obligations
25.1.7 Codes of Ethics
25.1.8 Whistle-Blowing [12]
25.1.9 Ethical Dilemmas
25.1.10 Additional Ethics Heuristics
25.1.11 Other Resources
25.2 Professional Registration
25.2.1 Engineerin-Training
25.2.2 Registered Professional Engineer
25.3 Legal Liability [13]
25.4 Business Codes of Conduct [14,15]
25.5 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 26 Health, Safety, and the Environment
26.1 Risk Assessment
26.1.1 Accident Statistics
26.1.2 Worst-Case Scenarios
26.1.3 The Role of the Chemical Engineer
26.2 Regulations and Agencies
26.2.1 OSHA and NIOSH
26.2.2 Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA)
26.2.3 Nongovernmental Organizations
26.3 Fires and Explosions
26.3.1 Terminology
26.3.2 Pressure-Relief Systems
26.4 Process Hazard Analysis
26.4.1 HAZOP (Hazard and Operability
Study)
26.4.2 Dow Fire & Explosion Index and
Chemical Exposure Index
26.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation
Board
26.6 Inherently Safe Design
26.7 Summary
26.8 Glossary
References
Problems
Chapter 27 Green Engineering
27.1 Environmental Regulations
27.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals
27.3 Green Chemistry
27.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design
27.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance
and Environmental Performance
27.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution
Prevention
27.7 Life Cycle Analysis
27.8 Summary
References
Problems
SECTION VI Interpersonal and Communication Skills
Chapter 28 Teamwork
28.1 Groups
28.1.1 Characteristics of Ef ective Groups
28.1.2 Assessing and Improving the
Ef ectiveness of a Group
28.1.3 Organizational Behaviors and
Strategies
28.2 Group Evolution
28.2.1 Forming
28.2.2 Storming
28.2.3 Norming
28.2.4 Performing
28.3 Teams and Teamwork
28.3.1 When Groups Become Teams
28.3.2 Unique Characteristics of Teams
28.4 Misconceptions
28.4.1 Team Exams
28.4.2 Overreliance on Team Members
28.5 Learning in Teams
28.6 Other Reading
28.7 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 29 Written and Oral Communication
29.1 Audience Analysis
29.2 Written Communication
29.2.1 Design Reports
29.2.2 Transmittal Letters or Memos
29.2.3 Executive Summaries and Abstracts
29.2.4 Other Types of Written
Communication
29.2.5 Exhibits (Figures and Tables)
29.2.6 References
29.2.7 Strategies for Writing
29.2.8 WVU and Auburn University
Guidelines for Written Design Reports
29.3 Oral Communication
29.3.1 Formal Oral Presentations
29.3.2 Briefings
29.3.3 Visual Aids
29.3.4 WVU and Auburn University Oral
Presentation Guidelines
29.4 Software and Author Responsibility
29.4.1 Spell Checkers
29.4.2 Thesaurus
29.4.3 Grammar Checkers
29.4.4 Graphs
29.4.5 Tables
29.4.6 Colors and Exotic Features
29.4.7 Raw Output from Process Simulators
29.5 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 30 A Report-Writing Case Study
30.1 The Assignment Memorandum
30.2 Response Memorandum
30.3 Visual Aids
30.4 Example Reports
30.4.1 An Example of a Portion of a Student
Written Report
30.4.2 An Example of an Improved Student
Written Report
30.5 Checklist of Common Mistakes and Errors
30.5.1 Common Mistakes for Visual Aids
30.5.2 Common Mistakes for Written Text
Appendix A Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST
Program
A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs
A.2 Pressure Factors
A.2.1 Pressure Factors for Process Vessels
A.2.2 Pressure Factors for Other Process
Equipment
A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors
A.3.1 Bare Module and Material Factors for
Heat Exchangers, Process Vessels, and
Pumps
A.3.2 Bare Module and Material Factors for
the Remaining Process Equipment
References
Appendix B Information for the Preliminary Design of Fifteen
Chemical Processes
B.1 Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production, Unit 200
B.1.1 Process Description
B.1.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.1.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.1.4 References
B.2 Ethylbenzene Production, Unit 300
B.2.1 Process Description [1, 2]
B.2.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.2.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.2.4 References
B.3 Styrene Production, Unit 400
B.3.1 Process Description [1, 2]
B.3.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.3.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.3.4 References
B.4 Drying Oil Production, Unit 500
B.4.1 Process Description
B.4.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.4.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.4.4 Reference
B.5 Production of Maleic Anhydride from Benzene,
Unit 600
B.5.1 Process Description
B.5.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.5.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.5.4 References
B.6 Ethylene Oxide Production, Unit 700
B.6.1 Process Description [1, 2]
B.6.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.6.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.6.4 References
B.7 Formalin Production, Unit 800
B.7.1 Process Description [1, 2]
B.7.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.7.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.7.4 References
B.8 Batch Production of L-Phenylalanine and LAspartic Acid, Unit 900
B.8.1 Process Description
B.8.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.8.3 References
B.9 Acrylic Acid Production via The Catalytic Partial
Oxidation of Propylene [1–5], Unit 1000
B.9.1 Process Description
B.9.2 Reaction Kinetics and Reactor
Configuration
B.9.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.9.4 References
B.10 Production of Acetone via the
Dehydrogenation of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)
[1–4], Unit 1100
B.10.1 Process Description
B.10.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.10.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.10.4 References
B.11 Production of Heptenes from Propylene and
Butenes [1], Unit 1200
B.11.1 Process Description
B.11.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.11.3 Simulation (CHEMCAD) Hints
B.11.4 Reference
B.12 Design of a Shift Reactor Unit to Convert CO to
CO , Unit 1300
B.12.1 Process Description
B.12.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.12.3 Simulation (Aspen Plus) Hints
B.12.4 Reference
B.13 Design of a Dual-Stage Selexol Unit to Remove
CO and H S From Coal-Derived Synthesis
Gas, Unit 1400
B.13.1 Process Description
B.13.2 Simulation (Aspen Plus) Hints
B.13.3 References
B.14 Design of a Claus Unit for the Conversion of
H S to Elemental Sulfur, Unit 1500
B.14.1 Process Description
B.14.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.14.3 Simulation (Aspen Plus) Hints
B.14.4 References
B.15 Modeling a Downward-Flow, Oxygen-Blown,
Entrained-Flow Gasifier, Unit 1600
B.15.1 Process Description
B.15.2 Reaction Kinetics
B.15.3 Simulation (Aspen Plus) Hints
B.15.4 References
Appendix C Design Projects
Project 1 Increasing the Production of 3-Chloro-1-Propene (Allyl
Chloride) in Unit 600
C.1.1 Background
C.1.2 Process Description of the Beaumont Allyl
Chloride Facility
C.1.3 Specific Objectives of Assignment
C.1.4 Additional Background Information
C.1.5 Process Design Calculations
Fluidized-Bed Reactor, R-601
Reference
Project 2 Design and Optimization of a New 20,000-MetricTons-per-Year Facility to Produce Allyl Chloride at
La Nueva Cantina, Mexico
C.2.1 Background
C.2.2 Assignment
C.2.3 Problem-Solving Methodology
C.2.4 Process Information
2
2 2
2
Project 3 Scale-Down of Phthalic Anhydride Production at
TBWS Unit 700
C.3.1 Background
C.3.2 Phthalic Anhydride Production
C.3.3 Other Information
C.3.4 Assignment
C.3.5 Report Format
Project 4 The Design of a New 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year
Phthalic Anhydride Production Facility
C.4.1 Background
C.4.2 Other Information
C.4.3 Assignment
C.4.4 Report Format
Project 5 Problems at the Cumene Production Facility, Unit 800
C.5.1 Background
C.5.2 Cumene Production Reactions
C.5.3 Process Description
C.5.4 Recent Problems in Unit 800
C.5.5 Other Information
C.5.6 Assignment
C.5.7 Report Format
C.5.8 Process Calculations
Calculations for Fuel Gas Exit Line for V-802
Calculations for P-801
Vapor Pressure of Stream 3
Calculations for P-802
Project 6 Design of a New, 100,000-Metric-Tons-per-Year
Cumene Production Facility
C.6.1 Background
C.6.2 Assignment
C.6.3 Report Format
Index

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