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A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 9th Edition – PDF – eBook

Author: John Santrock
SKU: 1259708780

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  • Authors: John Santrock (Author)
  • File Size: 127 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 800 pages
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill; 9th edition (October 20, 2017)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1259708780
  • ISBN-13: 978-1259708787

Download A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 9th Edition – PDF – eBook

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Description

  • Authors: John Santrock (Author)
  • File Size: 127 MB
  • Format: PDF
  • Paperback: 800 pages
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill; 9th edition (October 20, 2017)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1259708780
  • ISBN-13: 978-1259708787

Download A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 9th Edition – PDF – eBook

contents

About the Author xi
Expert Consultants xii
Preface xviii
CHAPTER 1
Introduction 2
The Life-Span Perspective 3
The Importance of Studying Life-Span
Development 3
Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective 3
Some Contemporary Concerns 7
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Improving Family Policy 10
The Nature of Development 11
Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional
Processes 11
Periods of Development 12
The Significance of Age 14
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH Is There a
Best Time of Day to Conduct Research? 15
Developmental Issues 17
Theories of Development 19
Psychoanalytic Theories 19
Cognitive Theories 21
CHAPTER 2
Biological Beginnings 45
The Evolutionary Perspective 46
Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior 46
Evolutionary Psychology 46
Genetic Foundations of Development 49
The Collaborative Gene 49
Genes and Chromosomes 51
Genetic Principles 53
Chromosomal and Gene-Linked
Abnormalities 54
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories 23
Ethological Theory 24
Ecological Theory 25
An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation 26
Research on Life-Span Development 27
Methods for Collecting Data 27
Research Designs 30
Time Span of Research 32
Conducting Ethical Research 34
Minimizing Bias 34
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Pam Reid,
Educational and Development
Psychologist 35
Reach Your Learning Goals 36
APPENDIX
Careers in Life-Span
Development 40
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Holly Ishmael,
Genetic Counselor 56
Heredity and Environment Interaction:
The Nature-Nurture Debate 57
Behavior Genetics 57
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE Am I
an “I” or “We”? 58
Heredity-Environment Correlations 58
The Epigenetic View and Gene × Environment
(G × E) Interaction 59
Conclusions About Heredity-Environment
Interaction 60
SECTION 1 THE LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE 1
SECTION 2 BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT,
AND HEALTH 44
Contents v
Prenatal Development 61
The Course of Prenatal Development 61
Prenatal Diagnostic Tests 65
Hazards to Prenatal Development 66
Prenatal Care 72
Birth and the Postpartum Period 73
The Birth Process 74
The Transition from Fetus to Newborn 76
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Linda Pugh,
Perinatal Nurse 77
Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants 78
Bonding 79
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH How Are
Preterm Infants Affected by Touch? 80
The Postpartum Period 81
Reach Your Learning Goals 83
CHAPTER 3
Physical Development and
Biological Aging 86
Body Growth and Change 87
Patterns of Growth 87
Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood 87
Puberty 89
Early Adulthood 92
Middle Adulthood 93
Late Adulthood 95
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Sarah Kagan,
Geriatric Nurse 95
The Brain 96
The Neuroconstructivist View 96
Brain Physiology 97
Infancy 98
Childhood 101
Adolescence 102
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Strategies for Helping
Adolescents Reduce Their RiskTaking Behavior 104
Adulthood and Aging 104
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH The Nun
Study 107
Sleep 108
Why Do We Sleep? 108
Infancy 108
Childhood 111
Adolescence and Emerging
Adulthood 111
Adulthood and Aging 113
Longevity and Biological Aging 114
Life Expectancy and Life Span 114
Centenarians 115
Biological Theories of Aging 118
Reach Your Learning Goals 121
CHAPTER 4
Health 124
Health, Illness, and Disease 125
Children’s Health 125
Adolescents’ Health 126
Emerging and Young Adults’ Health 127
Health and Aging 128
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH How
Stressful Is Caring for an Alzheimer Patient
at Home? 132
Nutrition and Eating Behavior 134
Infancy 134
Childhood 136
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Barbara
Deloian, Pediatric Nurse 137
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Helping Overweight Children
Lose Weight 138
Adolescence 139
Adult Development and Aging 140
Exercise 143
Childhood and Adolescence 143
Adulthood 145
Aging and Longevity 145
Substance Use 147
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood 148
Substance Use in Older Adults 151
Reach Your Learning Goals 152
CHAPTER 5
Motor, Sensory, and
Perceptual Development 154
Motor Development 155
The Dynamic Systems View 155
Reflexes 156
Gross Motor Skills 157
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Parents, Coaches, and Children’s
Sports 161
Fine Motor Skills 162
Sensory and Perceptual Development 164
What are Sensation and Perception? 164
The Ecological View 165
Visual Perception 165
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH How
Do Scientists Study the Newborn’s
Perception? 166
Hearing 172
Other Senses 174
Intermodal Perception 176
Nature/Nurture and Perceptual Development 176
Perceptual-Motor Coupling 178
Reach Your Learning Goals 179
vi Contents
CHAPTER 6
Cognitive Developmental
Approaches 182
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 183
Processes of Development 183
Sensorimotor Stage 184
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH How Do
Researchers Study Infants’ Understanding of
Object Permanence and Causality? 187
Preoperational Stage 190
Concrete Operational Stage 193
Formal Operational Stage 194
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE Are
Social Media an Amplification Tool for
Adolescent Egocentrism? 196
Applying and Evaluating Piaget’s
Theory 197
Piaget and Education 197
Evaluating Piaget’s Theory 198
Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive
Development 199
The Zone of Proximal Development 200
Scaffolding 200
Language and Thought 200
Teaching Strategies 201
Evaluating Vygotsky’s Theory 202
Cognitive Changes in Adulthood 204
Piaget’s View 204
Realistic and Pragmatic Thinking 204
Reflective and Relativistic Thinking 204
Cognition and Emotion 205
Is There a Fifth, Postformal Stage? 205
Are There Cognitive Stages in Middle and
Late Adulthood? 205
Reach Your Learning Goals 207
CHAPTER 7
Information Processing 210
The Information-Processing Approach 211
The Information-Processing Approach and Its
Application to Development 211
Speed of Processing Information 213
Attention 214
What is Attention? 215
Infancy 215
Childhood and Adolescence 217
Adulthood 218
Memory 219
What is Memory? 219
Infancy 220
Childhood 221
Adulthood 225
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH How Well Do
Adults Remember What They Learned in High
School and College Spanish? 227
Thinking 228
What is Thinking? 228
Infancy and Childhood 228
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Helen Hadani,
Ph.D., Developmental Psychologist, Toy
Designer, and Associate Director of Research
for the Center for Childhood Creativity 232
Adolescence 233
Adulthood 235
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE The
Remarkable Helen Small 239
Metacognition 241
What is Metacognition? 241
Theory of Mind 242
Metacognition in Adolescence and Adulthood 244
Reach Your Learning Goals 245
CHAPTER 8
Intelligence 249
The Concept of Intelligence 250
What is Intelligence? 250
Intelligence Tests 250
Theories of Multiple Intelligences 252
The Neuroscience of Intelligence 255
Controversies and Group Comparisons 256
The Influence of Heredity and Environment 256
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH Can Early
Intervention in the Lives of Children Growing
Up in Impoverished Circumstances Improve
Their Intelligence? 258
Group Comparisons and Issues 259
The Development of Intelligence 260
Tests of Infant Intelligence 260
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Toosje
Thyssen Van Beveren, Infant Assessment
Specialist 261
Stability and Change in Intelligence Through
Adolescence 262
Intelligence in Adulthood 262
The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity 266
Intellectual Disability 267
Giftedness 267
Creativity 270
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE Living
a More Creative Life 273
Reach Your Learning Goals 274
SECTION 3 COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND DEVELOPMENT 181
©JohnnyGreig/Getty Images RF
Contents vii
CHAPTER 9
Language Development 277
What is Language? 278
Defining Language 278
Language’s Rule Systems 278
How Language Develops 280
Infancy 281
Early Childhood 283
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Sharla Peltier,
Speech Therapist 284
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH What
Characteristics of a Family Affect a Child’s
Language Development? 286
Middle and Late Childhood 287
Adolescence 291
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Salvador
Tamayo, Teacher of English Language
Learners 292
Adulthood and Aging 292
Biological and Environmental
Influences 294
Biological Influences 294
Environmental Influences 295
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
How Parents Can Facilitate Infants’ and
Toddlers’ Language
Development 297
An Interactionist View of Language 298
Reach Your Learning Goals 299
CHAPTER 10
Emotional Development
and Attachment 302
Exploring Emotion 303
What Are Emotions? 303
Emotion Regulation 304
Emotional Competence 305
Development of Emotion 306
Infancy 306
Early Childhood 309
Middle and Late Childhood 310
Adolescence 312
Adult Development and Aging 312
Temperament 315
Describing and Classifying
Temperament 315
Biological Foundations and
Experience 317
Goodness of Fit and Parenting 319
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Parenting and the Child’s
Temperament 320
Attachment and Love 321
Infancy and Childhood 321
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Wanda
Mitchell, Child-Care Director 331
Adolescence 333
Adulthood 334
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH
Does the Breakup of a Romantic
Relationship Present an Opportunity for
Personal Growth? 340
Reach Your Learning Goals 341
CHAPTER 11
The Self, Identity, and
Personality 344
The Self 345
Self-Understanding and Understanding
Others 345
Self-Esteem and Self-Concept 351
Self-Regulation 355
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Strategies for Effectively
Engaging in Selective Optimization
with Compensation 358
Identity 359
What is Identity? 360
Erikson’s View 360
Some Contemporary Thoughts on
Identity 360
Developmental Changes 361
Identity and Social Contexts 363
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Armando Ronquillo, High School
Counselor 365
Personality 366
Trait Theories and the Big Five Factors
of Personality 366
Views on Adult Personality
Development 368
Generativity 371
Stability and Change 371
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH
Are Personality Traits Related to
Longevity? 372
Reach Your Learning Goals 375
SECTION 4 SOCIOEMOTIONAL PROCESSES AND
DEVELOPMENT 301
©Jan Scherders/Getty Images RF
viii Contents
CHAPTER 12
Gender and Sexuality 378
Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on
Gender 379
Biological Influences 379
Social Influences 381
Cognitive Influences 384
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH
What Are Young Children’s
Gender Schemas About
Occupations? 385
Gender Stereotypes, Similarities,
Differences, and Classification 386
Gender Stereotyping 386
Gender Similarities and Differences 387
Gender-Role Classification 390
Gender Development Through
the Life Span 392
Childhood 392
Adolescence 392
Adulthood and Aging 393
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Cynthia de las Fuentes, College
Professor and Counseling
Psychologist 394
Exploring Sexuality 396
Biological and Cultural Factors 396
Sexual Orientation 397
Sexually Transmitted Infections 399
Forcible Sexual Behavior and Sexual
Harassment 401
Sexuality Through the Life Span 402
Childhood 402
Adolescence and Emerging
Adulthood 403
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Lynn Blankinship, Family and Consumer
Science Educator 409
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Reducing Adolescent Pregnancy 409
Adult Development and Aging 410
Reach Your Learning Goals 414
CHAPTER 13
Moral Development, Values,
and Religion 417
Domains of Moral Development 418
What Is Moral Development? 418
Moral Thought 418
Moral Behavior 423
Moral Feeling 424
Moral Personality 427
Social Domain Theory 428
Contexts of Moral Development 429
Parenting 429
Schools 431
Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior 434
Prosocial Behavior 434
Antisocial Behavior 437
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Rodney
Hammond, Health Psychologist 439
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH Does
Intervention Reduce Juvenile
Delinquency? 441
Values, Religion, Spirituality, and Meaning
in Life 442
Values 442
Religion and Spirituality 443
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Gabriel
Dy-Liacco, Professor and Pastoral
Counselor 446
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Religion and Coping 447
Meaning in Life 448
Reach Your Learning Goals 449
CHAPTER 14
Families, Lifestyles, and
Parenting 453
Family Processes 454
Reciprocal Socialization 454
Family as a System 455
Sociocultural and Historical
Influences 456
Multiple Developmental Trajectories 457
The Diversity of Adult Lifestyles 457
Single Adults 457
Cohabiting Adults 458
Married Adults 459
Divorced Adults 464
Remarried Adults 466
Gay and Lesbian Adults 467
Parenting 468
Parental Roles 469
Parenting Styles and Discipline 471
SECTION 5 SOCIAL CONTEXTS OF DEVELOPMENT 452
©ImageDJ/age fotostock RF
Contents ix
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Janis Keyser,
Parent Educator 472
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH
Are Marital Conflict, Individual Hostility,
and the Use of Physical Punishment
Linked? 475
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Darla Botkin, Marriage and Family
Therapist 476
Parent-Adolescent and Parent–Emerging Adult
Relationships 478
Working Parents 481
Children in Divorced Families 482
Stepfamilies 484
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Communicating with Children About
Divorce 484
Gay and Lesbian Parents 485
Adoptive Parents and Adopted
Children 486
Other Family Relationships 488
Sibling Relationships and Birth
Order 488
Grandparenting and GreatGrandparenting 490
Intergenerational Relationships 491
Reach Your Learning Goals 494
CHAPTER 15
Peers and the Sociocultural
World 497
Peer Relations in Childhood and
Adolescence 498
Exploring Peer Relations 498
Peer Statuses 501
Bullying 503
Gender and Peer Relations 504
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH
How Are Perspective Taking and
Moral Motivation Linked to
Bullying? 505
Adolescent Peer Relations 505
Friendship 507
Functions of Friendship 507
Friendship During Childhood 507
Friendship During Adolescence and Emerging
Adulthood 507
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO LIFE
Effective and Ineffective Strategies for
Making Friends 508
Adult Friendship 509
Play and Leisure 511
Childhood 511
Adolescence 513
Adulthood 514
Aging and the Social World 516
Social Theories of Aging 516
Stereotyping of Older Adults 516
Social Support and Social
Integration 517
Successful Aging 518
Sociocultural Influences 519
Culture 519
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty 527
Ethnicity 530
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Norma
Thomas, Social Work Professor and
Administrator 533
Reach Your Learning Goals 534
CHAPTER 16
Schools, Achievement, and
Work 537
Schools 538
Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning and Assessment 538
Schools and Developmental Status 540
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Yolanda Garcia, Director of
Children’s Services, Head Start 542
Educating Children with Disabilities 547
Socioeconomic Status and Ethnicity in Schools 552
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS James Comer, Child Psychiatrist 554
Achievement 554
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation 555
Mastery Motivation and Mindset 556
Self-Efficacy 558
Goal Setting, Planning, and Self-Monitoring 558
Expectations 559
Ethnicity and Culture 559
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH
Parenting and Children’s Achievement:
My Child is My Report Card, Tiger
Moms and Tiger Babies Strike Back 561
Careers, Work, and Retirement 563
Career Development 563
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS
Grace Leaf, College/Career
Counselor and College Administrator 564
Work 564
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT
TO LIFE Working During
College 566
Retirement 569
Reach Your Learning Goals 572
x Contents
CHAPTER 17
Death, Dying, and
Grieving 576
The Death System and Cultural Contexts 577
The Death System and Its Cultural Variations 577
Changing Historical Circumstances 579
Defining Death and Life/Death Issues 579
Issues in Determining Death 579
Decisions Regarding Life, Death, and
Health Care 580
CONNECTING WITH CAREERS Kathy
McLaughlin, Home Hospice Nurse 582
A Developmental Perspective on Death 583
Causes of Death 583
Attitudes Toward Death at Different Points in the
Life Span 583
Suicide 585
Facing One’s Own Death 588
Kübler-Ross’ Stages of Dying 588
Perceived Control and Denial 589
The Contexts in Which People Die 589
Coping with the Death of Someone
Else 590
Communicating with a Dying Person 590
CONNECTING DEVELOPMENT TO
LIFE Communicating with a Dying
Person 591
Grieving 591
Making Sense of the World 593
Losing a Life Partner 594
CONNECTING WITH RESEARCH How is
Widowhood Related to Women’s Physical
and Mental Health? 595
Forms of Mourning 596
Reach Your Learning Goals 598
McGraw-Hill Education
Psychology APA Documentation Style
Guide
Glossary G1
References R
Name Index NI
Subject Index SI1

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